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Human sialic acid acetyl esterase: Towards a better understanding of a puzzling enzyme

01.09.2015 | Flavia Orizio; Eufemia Damiati; Edoardo Giacopuzzi; Giuliana Benaglia; Stefano Pianta; Roland Schauer; Reinhard Schw ..., Glycobiology , 2015

Sialic acid acetyl esterase (SIAE) removes acetyl moieties from the hydroxyl groups in position 9 and 4 of sialic acid. Recently, a dispute has been opened on its association to autoimmunity. In order to get new insights on human SIAE biology and to clarify its seemingly contradictory molecular ...


Glycosaminoglycans affect heparanase location in CHO cell lines

01.09.2015 | Maria BR Piva; Eloah R Suarez; Carina M Melo; Renan P Cavalheiro; Helena B Nader; Maria AS Pinhal, Glycobiology , 2015

Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) play a ubiquitous role in tissues and cells. In eukaryotic cells, heparan sulfate (HS) is initially degraded by an endo-β-glucuronidase called heparanase-1 (HPSE). HS oligosaccharides generated by the action of HPSE intensify the activity of signaling molecules, ...


Crystal structure of a symbiosis-related lectin from octocoral

01.09.2015 | Akiko Kita; Mitsuru Jimbo; Ryuichi Sakai; Yukio Morimoto; Kunio Miki, Glycobiology , 2015

D-Galactose-binding lectin from the octocoral, Sinularia lochmodes (SLL-2), distributes densely on the cell surface of microalgae, Symbiodinium sp., an endosymbiotic dinoflagellate of the coral, and is also shown to be a chemical cue that transforms dinoflagellate into a non-motile (coccoid) ...


I2020T mutant LRRK2 iPSC-derived neurons in the Sagamihara family exhibit increased Tau phosphorylation through the AKT/GSK-3{beta} signaling pathway

01.09.2015 | Etsuro Ohta; Tomoko Nihira; Akiko Uchino; Yoichi Imaizumi; Yohei Okada; Wado Akamatsu; Kayoko Takahashi; Hideki Haya ..., Human Molecular Genetics, 2015

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is the causative molecule of the autosomal dominant hereditary form of Parkinson's disease (PD), PARK8, which was originally defined in a study of a Japanese family (the Sagamihara family) harboring the I2020T mutation in the kinase domain. Although a number ...


Fingolimod (FTY720) enhances hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in Huntington's disease by preventing p75NTR up-regulation and astrocyte-mediated inflammation

01.09.2015 | Andrés Miguez; Gerardo García-Díaz Barriga; Verónica Brito; Marco Straccia; Albert Giralt; Silvia Ginés; Josep M. Ca ..., Human Molecular Genetics, 2015

Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and cognitive impairments, involving striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Synaptic and memory dysfunction in HD mouse models have been related to low levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ...


DICER/AGO-dependent epigenetic silencing of D4Z4 repeats enhanced by exogenous siRNA suggests mechanisms and therapies for FSHD

01.09.2015 | Jong-Won Lim; Lauren Snider; Zizhen Yao; Rabi Tawil; Silvère M. Van Der Maarel; Frank Rigo; C. Frank Bennett; Galina ..., Human Molecular Genetics, 2015

Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by the aberrant expression of the DUX4 transcription factor in skeletal muscle. The DUX4 retrogene is encoded in the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array, and smaller array size or a mutation in the SMCHD1 gene results in inefficient epigenetic ...


Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of urban particulate matter in mammalian cells

01.09.2015 | Audrey F. Dumax-Vorzet; M. Tate; Richard Walmsley; Rhod H. Elder; Andrew C. Povey, Mutagenesis, 2015

Ambient air particulate matter (PM)-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been linked to a variety of altered cellular outcomes. In this study, three different PM samples from diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust standard reference material SRM1649a and air collected in Manchester ...


Elucidation of changes in molecular signalling leading to increased cellular transformation in oncogenically progressed human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to radiations of increasing LET

01.09.2015 | Liang-Hao Ding; Seongmi Park; Yang Xie; Luc Girard; John D. Minna; Michael D. Story, Mutagenesis, 2015

The early transcriptional response and subsequent induction of anchorage-independent growth after exposure to particles of high Z and energy (HZE) as well as -rays were examined in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC3KT) immortalised without viral oncogenes and an isogenic variant cell line ...


Micronucleus formation by single and mixed heavy metals/loids and PAH compounds in HepG2 cells

01.09.2015 | Cheng Peng; Sasikumar Muthusamy; Qing Xia; Vincent Lal; Michael S. Denison; Jack C. Ng, Mutagenesis, 2015

Humans and other organisms are exposed to multi-chemical mixtures including commonly found carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metal/loids. The joint effects of these chemicals as beyond the binary mixtures have not been well characterised. In this study, we ...


Inherited Magnetic Maps in Salmon and the Role of Geomagnetic Change

01.09.2015 | Nathan F. Putman, Integrative and Comparative Biology, 2015

Migration in animals has evolved as an adaptation to environmental variability across space and through time. The availability of reliable sensory cues and guidance mechanisms used in navigating among disparate locations is an essential component of this behavior. An "inherited magnetic map" is ...


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