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Leptin deficiency in vivo enhances the ability of splenic dendritic cells to activate T cells

01.11.2014 | Oscar Ramirez; Kristine M. Garza, International Immunology, 2014

Leptin is a pleiotropic adipokine that is critical for regulating food intake and energy expenditure and also participates in functions of the immune system, including those of antigen-presenting cells. Here, we assess the effect of leptin deficiency on the function splenic dendritic cells (sDC). ...

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NKG2D functions as an activating receptor on natural killer cells in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

01.11.2014 | Masamichi Watanabe; Yohei Kudo; Mitsuko Kawano; Masafumi Nakayama; Kyohei Nakamura; Mai Kameda; Masamune Ebara; Take ..., International Immunology, 2014

The natural killer group 2 membrane D (NKG2D) receptor is an NK-activating receptor that plays an important role in host defense against tumors and viral infections. Although the marmoset is an important and reliable animal model, especially for the study of human-specific viral infections, ...

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Autonomic control of the heart: going beyond the classical neurotransmitters

18.10.2014 | Neil Herring, Experimental Physiology, 2014

Abstract Acute myocardial infarction and congestive cardiac failure are characterized by high levels of cardiac sympathetic drive. Under these conditions additional sympathetic neurotransmitters such as neuropeptide‐Y can be released in addition to norepinephrine and plasma levels correlate ...

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Differential functional role of purinergic and nitrergic inhibitory co‐transmitters in human colonic relaxation

18.10.2014 | Noemí Mañé, Víctor Gil, Míriam Martínez‐Cutillas, Pere Clavé, Diana Gallego, Marcel Jiménez, Acta Physiologica, 2014

Abstract Aim ATP and nitric oxide (NO) are released from enteric inhibitory motor neurons and are responsible for colonic smooth muscle relaxation. However, how frequency of neural stimulation affects this co‐transmission process and the post‐junctional responses has not been systematically ...

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Critical role of p38 MAPK in IL‐4‐induced alternative activation of peritoneal macrophages

18.10.2014 | Lidia Jiménez‐Garcia, Sandra Herránz, Alfonso Luque, Sonsoles Hortelano, European Journal of Immunology, 2014

Alternative activation of macrophages plays an important role in a range of physiological and pathological processes. This alternative phenotype, also known as M2 macrophages, is induced by type 2 cytokines such as IL‐4. The binding of IL‐4 to its receptor leads to activation of two major ...

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Co-opted Oxysterol-Binding ORP and VAP Proteins Channel Sterols to RNA Virus Replication Sites via Membrane Contact Sites

16.10.2014 | Daniel Barajas et al., PLoS Pathogens, 2014

by Daniel Barajas, Kai Xu, Isabel Fernández de Castro Martín, Zsuzsanna Sasvari, Federica Brandizzi, Cristina Risco, Peter D. Nagy Viruses recruit cellular membranes and subvert cellular proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis to build viral replicase complexes and replication organelles. Among ...

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Mycoplasma Hyorhinis Infection Promotes NF-{kappa}B-Dependent Migration of Gastric Cancer Cells

15.10.2014 | Hongying Duan; Ling Chen; Like Qu; Hua Yang; Sonya Wei Song; Yong Han; Meihua Ye; Wanyuan Chen; Xianglei He; Chengch ..., Cancer Research, 2014

Chronic infection of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) has been postulated to be associated with several types of cancer, but its effect on patients' survival and host factors mediating its infection remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that M. hyorhinis p37 protein expression in gastric ...

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SAR405838: An Optimized Inhibitor of MDM2–p53 Interaction That Induces Complete and Durable Tumor Regression

15.10.2014 | Shaomeng Wang; Wei Sun; Yujun Zhao; Donna McEachern; Isabelle Meaux; Cédric Barrière; Jeanne A. Stuckey; Jennifer L. ..., Cancer Research, 2014

Blocking the oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2)–p53 protein–protein interaction has long been considered to offer a broad cancer therapeutic strategy, despite the potential risks of selecting tumors harboring p53 mutations that escape MDM2 control. In this study, we report a novel ...

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Differential uPAR recruitment in caveolar‐lipid rafts by GM1 and GM3 gangliosides regulates endothelial progenitor cells angiogenesis

14.10.2014 | Francesca Margheri, Laura Papucci, Nicola Schiavone, Riccardo D'Agostino, Silvana Trigari, Simona Serratì, Anna Laur ..., Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 2014

Abstract Gangliosides and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) tipically partition in specialized membrane microdomains called lipid‐rafts. uPAR becomes functionally important in fostering angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) upon recruitment in caveolar‐lipid ...

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Hydrogen sulphide decreases IL‐1β‐induced activation of fibroblast‐like synoviocytes from patients with osteoarthritis

14.10.2014 | Daniela Sieghart, Melissa Liszt, Axel Wanivenhaus, Hans Bröll, Hans Kiener, Burkhard Klösch, Günter Steiner, Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 2014

Abstract Balneotherapy employing sulphurous thermal water is still applied to patients suffering from diseases of musculoskeletal system like osteoarthritis (OA) but evidence for its clinical effectiveness is scarce. Since the gasotransmitter hydrogen sulphide (H2S) seems to affect cells ...

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