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14.816 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Marker for type VI secretion system effectors [Microbiology]

24.06.2014 | Dor Salomon; Lisa N. Kinch; David C. Trudgian; Xiaofeng Guo; John A. Klimko; Nick V. Grishin; Hamid Mirzaei; Kim Orth, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Bacteria use diverse mechanisms to kill, manipulate, and compete with other cells. The recently discovered type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in bacterial pathogens and used to deliver virulence effector proteins into target cells. Using comparative proteomics, we identified two ...

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Cofactor-dependent conformational heterogeneity of GAD65 and its role in autoimmunity and neurotransmitter homeostasis [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

24.06.2014 | Itamar Kass; David E. Hoke; Mauricio G. S. Costa; Cyril F. Reboul; Benjamin T. Porebski; Nathan P. Cowieson; Hervé L ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The human neuroendocrine enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) catalyses the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a cofactor. GAD exists as two isoforms named according to their respective molecular weights: GAD65 and GAD67. ...

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Compositional landscape for glass formation in metal alloys [Applied Physical Sciences]

24.06.2014 | Jong Hyun Na; Marios D. Demetriou; Michael Floyd; Andrew Hoff; Glenn R. Garrett; William L. Johnson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A high-resolution compositional map of glass-forming ability (GFA) in the Ni–Cr–Nb–P–B system is experimentally determined along various compositional planes. GFA is shown to be a piecewise continuous function formed by intersecting compositional subsurfaces, each associated with a nucleation ...

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Taura syndrome virus IRES initiates translation by binding its tRNA-mRNA-like structural element in the ribosomal decoding center [Biochemistry]

24.06.2014 | Cha San Koh; Axel F. Brilot; Nikolaus Grigorieff; Andrei A. Korostelev, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In cap-dependent translation initiation, the open reading frame (ORF) of mRNA is established by the placement of the AUG start codon and initiator tRNA in the ribosomal peptidyl (P) site. Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) promote translation of mRNAs in a cap-independent manner. We report two ...

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Maritime route of colonization of Europe [Genetics]

24.06.2014 | Peristera Paschou; Petros Drineas; Evangelia Yannaki; Anna Razou; Katerina Kanaki; Fotis Tsetsos; Shanmukha Sampath ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The Neolithic populations, which colonized Europe approximately 9,000 y ago, presumably migrated from Near East to Anatolia and from there to Central Europe through Thrace and the Balkans. An alternative route would have been island hopping across the Southern European coast. To test this ...

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Targeting and in vivo imaging of non-small-cell lung cancer using nebulized multimodal contrast agents [Medical Sciences]

24.06.2014 | Andrea Bianchi; Sandrine Dufort; François Lux; Pierre-Yves Fortin; Nawal Tassali; Olivier Tillement; Jean-Luc Coll; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

One of the main reasons for the dismal prognosis of lung cancer is related to the late diagnosis of this pathology. In this work, we evaluated the potential of optimized lung MRI techniques and nebulized ultrasmall multimodal gadolinium-based contrast agents [ultrasmall rigid platforms (USRPs)] ...

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Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 regulates the patterning of retinal mosaics [Neuroscience]

24.06.2014 | Patrick W. Keeley; Cuiqi Zhou; Lu Lu; Robert W. Williams; Shlomo Melmed; Benjamin E. Reese, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Neurons are commonly organized as regular arrays within a structure, and their patterning is achieved by minimizing the proximity between like-type cells, but molecular mechanisms regulating this process have, until recently, been unexplored. We performed a forward genetic screen using ...

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Economic scarcity alters the perception of race [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

24.06.2014 | Amy R. Krosch; David M. Amodio, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

When the economy declines, racial minorities are hit the hardest. Although existing explanations for this effect focus on institutional causes, recent psychological findings suggest that scarcity may also alter perceptions of race in ways that exacerbate discrimination. We tested the hypothesis ...

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Plant roots use a patterning mechanism to position lateral root branches toward available water [Plant Biology]

24.06.2014 | Yun Bao; Pooja Aggarwal; Neil E. Robbins II; Craig J. Sturrock; Mark C. Thompson; Han Qi Tan; Cliff Tham; Lina Duan; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The architecture of the branched root system of plants is a major determinant of vigor. Water availability is known to impact root physiology and growth; however, the spatial scale at which this stimulus influences root architecture is poorly understood. Here we reveal that differences in the ...

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Plasticity of hydrogen bond networks regulates mechanochemistry of cell adhesion complexes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

24.06.2014 | Shaon Chakrabarti; Michael Hinczewski; D. Thirumalai, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion receptor proteins regulate a range of cellular functions by formation and rupture of noncovalent interactions with ligands. Typically, force decreases the lifetimes of intact complexes (“slip bonds”), making the discovery that these lifetimes can also be ...

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