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19.302 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Small RNA-based feedforward loop with AND-gate logic regulates extrachromosomal DNA transfer in Salmonella [Microbiology]

25.08.2015 | Kai Papenfort; Elena Espinosa; Josep Casadesús; Jörg Vogel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Horizontal gene transfer via plasmid conjugation is a major driving force in microbial evolution but constitutes a complex process that requires synchronization with the physiological state of the host bacteria. Although several host transcription factors are known to regulate plasmid-borne ...

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Correlating steric hydration forces with water dynamics through surface force and diffusion NMR measurements in a lipid-DMSO-H2O system [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

25.08.2015 | Alex M. Schrader; Stephen H. Donaldson Jr.; Jinsuk Song; Chi-Yuan Cheng; Dong Woog Lee; Songi Han; Jacob N. Israelac ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a common solvent and biological additive possessing well-known utility in cellular cryoprotection and lipid membrane permeabilization, but the governing mechanisms at membrane interfaces remain poorly understood. Many studies have focused on DMSO–lipid interactions ...

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Cryptic infection of a broad taxonomic and geographic diversity of tadpoles by Perkinsea protists [Ecology]

25.08.2015 | Aurélie Chambouvet; David J. Gower; Miloslav Jirků; Michael J. Yabsley; Andrew K. Davis; Guy Leonard; Finlay Maguire ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The decline of amphibian populations, particularly frogs, is often cited as an example in support of the claim that Earth is undergoing its sixth mass extinction event. Amphibians seem to be particularly sensitive to emerging diseases (e.g., fungal and viral pathogens), yet the diversity and ...

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Breakthrough of SIV strain smE660 challenge in SIV strain mac239-vaccinated rhesus macaques despite potent autologous neutralizing antibody responses [Immunology and Inflammation]

25.08.2015 | Samantha L. Burton; Katie M. Kilgore; S. Abigail Smith; Sharmila Reddy; Eric Hunter; Harriet L. Robinson; Guido Silv ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Although the correlates of immunological protection from human immunodeficiency virus or simian immunodeficiency virus infection remain incompletely understood, it is generally believed that medium to high titers of serum neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the challenge virus will prevent ...

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Sex determination by multiple sex chromosomes in Xenopus tropicalis [Genetics]

25.08.2015 | Manfred Schartl, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Sex determination shows a great diversity of mechanisms, ranging from temperature and other environmental cues to strict chromosomal control over this process. In the case of genetic sex determination, this variability is linked to a similarly high variation of sex chromosome differentiation. In ...

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Reply to Nott: Assessing biases in speleothem records of flood events [Physical Sciences]

25.08.2015 | Rhawn F. Denniston; Gabriele Villarini; Angelique N. Gonzales; Victor J. Polyak; Caroline C. Ummenhofer; Matthew S. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In our reconstruction of extreme rainfall events from the Australian tropics (1), we relied on a method still in its infancy: linking accumulations of sediment trapped within stalagmites to discrete cave flooding events. This sedimentological approach (2, 3) represents an important complement to ...

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Shape control and compartmentalization in active colloidal cells [Applied Physical Sciences]

25.08.2015 | Matthew Spellings; Michael Engel; Daphne Klotsa; Syeda Sabrina; Aaron M. Drews; Nguyen H. P. Nguyen; Kyle J. M. Bish ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Small autonomous machines like biological cells or soft robots can convert energy input into control of function and form. It is desired that this behavior emerges spontaneously and can be easily switched over time. For this purpose we introduce an active matter system that is loosely inspired by ...

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Random bursts determine dynamics of active filaments [Physics]

25.08.2015 | Christoph A. Weber; Ryo Suzuki; Volker Schaller; Igor S. Aranson; Andreas R. Bausch; Erwin Frey, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Constituents of living or synthetic active matter have access to a local energy supply that serves to keep the system out of thermal equilibrium. The statistical properties of such fluctuating active systems differ from those of their equilibrium counterparts. Using the actin filament gliding ...

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Elasticity, friction, and pathway of {gamma}-subunit rotation in FoF1-ATP synthase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

25.08.2015 | Kei-ichi Okazaki; Gerhard Hummer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We combine molecular simulations and mechanical modeling to explore the mechanism of energy conversion in the coupled rotary motors of FoF1-ATP synthase. A torsional viscoelastic model with frictional dissipation quantitatively reproduces the dynamics and energetics seen in atomistic molecular ...

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Profile of Dinshaw J. Patel [Profiles]

25.08.2015 | Tinsley H. Davis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Small-noncoding RNA molecules are the dark matter of molecular biology. From small interfering (si) RNAs that silence invading pathogens to microRNAs that fine-tune gene expression, noncoding RNAs carry out a vast number of functions within the cell. “It was generally believed in the early days ...

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