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18.207 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Mechanism of pyranopterin ring formation in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis [Chemistry]

19.05.2015 | Bradley M. Hover; Nam K. Tonthat; Maria A. Schumacher; Kenichi Yokoyama, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is essential for all kingdoms of life, plays central roles in various biological processes, and must be biosynthesized de novo. During Moco biosynthesis, the characteristic pyranopterin ring is constructed by a complex rearrangement of guanosine 5′-triphosphate ...

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Genetically encoded sensors of protein hydrodynamics and molecular proximity [Biochemistry]

19.05.2015 | Alexander C. Hoepker; Ariel Wang; Alix Le Marois; Klaus Suhling; Yuling Yan; Gerard Marriott, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The specialized light organ of the ponyfish supports the growth of the bioluminescent symbiont Photobacterium leiognathi. The bioluminescence of P. leiognathi is generated within a heteromeric protein complex composed of the bacterial luciferase and a 20-kDa lumazine binding protein (LUMP), which ...

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Metabolic theory and taxonomic identity predict nutrient recycling in a diverse food web [Ecology]

19.05.2015 | Jacob Edward Allgeier; Seth J. Wenger; Amy D. Rosemond; Daniel E. Schindler; Craig A. Layman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Reconciling the degree to which ecological processes are generalizable among taxa and ecosystems, or contingent on the identity of interacting species, remains a critical challenge in ecology. Ecological stoichiometry (EST) and metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) are theoretical approaches used to ...

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Metabolic dependencies drive species co-occurrence in diverse microbial communities [Microbiology]

19.05.2015 | Aleksej Zelezniak; Sergej Andrejev; Olga Ponomarova; Daniel R. Mende; Peer Bork; Kiran Raosaheb Patil, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Microbial communities populate most environments on earth and play a critical role in ecology and human health. Their composition is thought to be largely shaped by interspecies competition for the available resources, but cooperative interactions, such as metabolite exchanges, have also been ...

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Apolipoprotein CIII links islet insulin resistance to {beta}-cell failure in diabetes [Cell Biology]

19.05.2015 | Karin Åvall; Yusuf Ali; Ingo B. Leibiger; Barbara Leibiger; Tilo Moede; Meike Paschen; Andrea Dicker; Elisabetta Dar ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Insulin resistance and β-cell failure are the major defects in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the molecular mechanisms linking these two defects remain unknown. Elevated levels of apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) are associated not only with insulin resistance but also with cardiovascular ...

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Lester Reed: A "complex" man who loved science [Retrospectives]

19.05.2015 | Marvin L. Hackert; Dean R. Appling; Alan M. Lambowitz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Lester J. Reed, a pioneer in the field of biochemistry, died peacefully in Austin, Texas on January 14, 2015 at the age of 90. Lester Reed was born in New Orleans on January 3, 1925. He showed an early interest in chemistry, having his own laboratory in a shed under...

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Drosophila Ncd reveals an evolutionarily conserved powerstroke mechanism for homodimeric and heterodimeric kinesin-14s [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

19.05.2015 | Pengwei Zhang; Wei Dai; Juergen Hahn; Susan P. Gilbert, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-14 Ncd cross-links parallel microtubules at the spindle poles and antiparallel microtubules within the spindle midzone to play roles in bipolar spindle assembly and proper chromosome distribution. As observed for Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-14 Kar3Vik1 and ...

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Hemoglobin {beta}Cys93 is essential for cardiovascular function and integrated response to hypoxia [Medical Sciences]

19.05.2015 | Rongli Zhang; Douglas T. Hess; Zhaoxia Qian; Alfred Hausladen; Fabio Fonseca; Ruchi Chaube; James D. Reynolds; Jonat ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Oxygen delivery by Hb is essential for vertebrate life. Three amino acids in Hb are strictly conserved in all mammals and birds, but only two of those, a His and a Phe that stabilize the heme moiety, are needed to carry O2. The third conserved residue is a Cys within...

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Reconstructing the neuronal milieu interieur [Neuroscience]

19.05.2015 | Frederick J. Livesey, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The resurgence of interest in in vitro human neurobiology, largely driven by advances in stem cell biology, has focused attention on the practical problem of the care and feeding of neurons ex vivo. We now have the ability to generate multiple distinct neuronal cell types, as well as glial ...

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Activation of the bacterial thermosensor DesK involves a serine zipper dimerization motif that is modulated by bilayer thickness [Biochemistry]

19.05.2015 | Larisa Estefanía Cybulski; Joost Ballering; Anastassiia Moussatova; Maria Eugenia Inda; Daniela B. Vazquez; Tsjerk A ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

DesK is a bacterial thermosensor protein involved in maintaining membrane fluidity in response to changes in environmental temperature. Most likely, the protein is activated by changes in membrane thickness, but the molecular mechanism of sensing and signaling is still poorly understood. Here we ...

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