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18.559 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Reply to Chen: Under specified assumptions, adequate random samples of skewed distributions obey Taylor's law [Biological Sciences]

23.06.2015 | Joel E. Cohen; Meng Xu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Chen (1) simulated random samples of beta, lognormal, and Poisson distributions with varying parameters following the method that we (2) used for fixed parameters. Chen claimed that the relationship between the supporting rate of Taylor's law (TL) and skewness is “complex and nonmonotonic,” as ...

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Host lysozyme-mediated lysis of Lactococcus lactis facilitates delivery of colitis-attenuating superoxide dismutase to inflamed colons [Microbiology]

23.06.2015 | Sonia A. Ballal; Patrick Veiga; Kathrin Fenn; Monia Michaud; Jason H. Kim; Carey Ann Gallini; Jonathan N. Glickman; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Beneficial microbes that target molecules and pathways, such as oxidative stress, which can negatively affect both host and microbiota, may hold promise as an inflammatory bowel disease therapy. Prior work showed that a five-strain fermented milk product (FMP) improved colitis in T-bet−/− Rag2−/− ...

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Cytochrome cbb3 of Thioalkalivibrio is a Na+-pumping cytochrome oxidase [Biochemistry]

23.06.2015 | Maria S. Muntyan; Dmitry A. Cherepanov; Anssi M. Malinen; Dmitry A. Bloch; Dimitry Y. Sorokin; Inna I. Severina; Tat ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cytochrome c oxidases (Coxs) are the basic energy transducers in the respiratory chain of the majority of aerobic organisms. Coxs studied to date are redox-driven proton-pumping enzymes belonging to one of three subfamilies: A-, B-, and C-type oxidases. The C-type oxidases (cbb3 cytochromes), ...

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Amelioration of toxicity in neuronal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by hUPF1 [Neuroscience]

23.06.2015 | Sami J. Barmada; Shulin Ju; Arpana Arjun; Anthony Batarse; Hilary C. Archbold; Daniel Peisach; Xingli Li; Yuxi Zhang ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Over 30% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) exhibit cognitive deficits indicative of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), suggesting a common pathogenesis for both diseases. Consistent with this hypothesis, neuronal and glial inclusions rich in TDP43, an essential RNA-binding protein, ...

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Classical conditioning of analgesic and hyperalgesic pain responses without conscious awareness [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

23.06.2015 | Karin Jensen; Irving Kirsch; Sara Odmalm; Ted J. Kaptchuk; Martin Ingvar, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Pain reduction and enhancement can be produced by means of conditioning procedures, yet the role of awareness during the acquisition stage of classical conditioning is unknown. We used psychophysical measures to establish whether conditioned analgesic and hyperalgesic responses could be acquired ...

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Retro-translocation of mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins [Biochemistry]

23.06.2015 | Piotr Bragoszewski; Michal Wasilewski; Paulina Sakowska; Agnieszka Gornicka; Lena Böttinger; Jian Qiu; Nils Wiedeman ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The content of mitochondrial proteome is maintained through two highly dynamic processes, the influx of newly synthesized proteins from the cytosol and the protein degradation. Mitochondrial proteins are targeted to the intermembrane space by the mitochondrial intermembrane space assembly pathway ...

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Reply to Aksentijevic: It is a matter of what is countable and how neurons learn [Biological Sciences]

23.06.2015 | Yanlong Sun; Randall C. O’Reilly; Jack W. Smith; Hongbin Wang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Aksentijevic (1) raises issues with our recent report (2) that bear further clarification because they reflect some fundamental confusion about the nature of random sequences. First, it is essential to distinguish statistics for individual elements (i.e., patterns of length one) vs. statistics ...

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Novel pathways for fuels and lubricants from biomass optimized using life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment [Sustainability Science]

23.06.2015 | Madhesan Balakrishnan; Eric R. Sacia; Sanil Sreekumar; Gorkem Gunbas; Amit A. Gokhale; Corinne D. Scown; F. Dean Tos ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Decarbonizing the transportation sector is critical to achieving global climate change mitigation. Although biofuels will play an important role in conventional gasoline and diesel applications, bioderived solutions are particularly important in jet fuels and lubricants, for which no other viable ...

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Sample and population exponents of generalized Taylor's law [Physics]

23.06.2015 | Andrea Giometto; Marco Formentin; Andrea Rinaldo; Joel E. Cohen; Amos Maritan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Taylor’s law (TL) states that the variance V of a nonnegative random variable is a power function of its mean M; i.e., V=aMb. TL has been verified extensively in ecology, where it applies to population abundance, physics, and other natural sciences. Its ubiquitous empirical verification suggests ...

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Molecular diffusion in the human nail measured by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

23.06.2015 | Wing Sin Chiu; Natalie A. Belsey; Natalie L. Garrett; Julian Moger; M. Begoña Delgado-Charro; Richard H. Guy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The effective treatment of diseases of the nail remains an important unmet medical need, primarily because of poor drug delivery. To address this challenge, the diffusion, in real time, of topically applied chemicals into the human nail has been visualized and characterized using stimulated Raman ...

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