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17.690 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Extreme rainfall activity in the Australian tropics reflects changes in the El Nino/Southern Oscillation over the last two millennia [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

14.04.2015 | Rhawn F. Denniston; Gabriele Villarini; Angelique N. Gonzales; Karl-Heinz Wyrwoll; Victor J. Polyak; Caroline C. Umm ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Assessing temporal variability in extreme rainfall events before the historical era is complicated by the sparsity of long-term “direct” storm proxies. Here we present a 2,200-y-long, accurate, and precisely dated record of cave flooding events from the northwest Australian tropics that we ...

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Tryptophan-independent auxin biosynthesis contributes to early embryogenesis in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

14.04.2015 | Bing Wang; Jinfang Chu; Tianying Yu; Qian Xu; Xiaohong Sun; Jia Yuan; Guosheng Xiong; Guodong Wang; Yonghong Wang; J ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Tremendous achievements have been made in elucidating the tryptophan (Trp)-dependent auxin biosynthetic pathway; however, the genetic evidence, key components, and functions of the Trp-independent pathway remain ...

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DNA-mediated engineering of multicomponent enzyme crystals [Chemistry]

14.04.2015 | Jeffrey D. Brodin; Evelyn Auyeung; Chad A. Mirkin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The ability to predictably control the coassembly of multiple nanoscale building blocks, especially those with disparate chemical and physical properties such as biomolecules and inorganic nanoparticles, has far-reaching implications in catalysis, sensing, and photonics, but a generalizable ...

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Cis and trans interactions between atlastin molecules during membrane fusion [Cell Biology]

14.04.2015 | Tina Y. Liu; Xin Bian; Fabian B. Romano; Tom Shemesh; Tom A. Rapoport; Junjie Hu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Atlastin (ATL), a membrane-anchored GTPase that mediates homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, is required for formation of the tubular network of the peripheral ER. How exactly ATL mediates membrane fusion is only poorly understood. Here we show that fusion is preceded by the ...

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Links that speak only some languages [Physical Sciences]

14.04.2015 | Ann J. Biersteker, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Ronen et al. (1) raise an intriguing question concerning how to define quantitatively “the global influence of languages.” Unfortunately, the limitations and flaws in their datasets raise questions concerning the validity of their maps of global language networks. UNESCO’s Index Translationum (2) ...

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Force-induced on-rate switching and modulation by mutations in gain-of-function von Willebrand diseases [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

14.04.2015 | Jongseong Kim; Nathan E. Hudson; Timothy A. Springer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Mutations in the ultralong vascular protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) cause the common human bleeding disorder, von Willebrand disease (VWD). The A1 domain in VWF binds to glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) on platelets, in a reaction triggered, in part, by alterations in flow during bleeding. ...

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Robust and sustained immune activation in human Ebola virus infection [Immunology and Inflammation]

14.04.2015 | Judith N. Mandl; Mark B. Feinberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Ebola viruses (EBOV) are zoonotic infectious agents that are highly pathogenic in humans, causing severe hemorrhagic fever with fatality rates of ∼50–70% (1). This genus of negative single-stranded RNA viruses consists of five known species that are part of the Filoviridae family. The current ...

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Analysis of cell division patterns in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem [Plant Biology]

14.04.2015 | Bruce E. Shapiro; Cory Tobin; Eric Mjolsness; Elliot M. Meyerowitz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The stereotypic pattern of cell shapes in the Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem (SAM) suggests that strict rules govern the placement of new walls during cell division. When a cell in the SAM divides, a new wall is built that connects existing walls and divides the cytoplasm of the daughter ...

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G{alpha}i1 and G{alpha}i3 regulate macrophage polarization by forming a complex containing CD14 and Gab1 [Immunology and Inflammation]

14.04.2015 | Xianjing Li; Duowei Wang; Zhen Chen; Ermei Lu; Zhuo Wang; Jingjing Duan; Wei Tian; Yun Wang; Linjun You; Yulian Zou; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Heterotrimeric G proteins have been implicated in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in macrophages and endothelial cells. However, whether guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-1 and alpha-3 (Gαi1/3) are required for LPS responses remains unclear, and if so, the underlying ...

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Continental-level biodiversity collapse [Environmental Sciences]

14.04.2015 | David B. Lindenmayer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Biodiversity loss is a global phenomenon (1), with Woinarski et al. (2) providing a sobering review of the demise of the Australian native terrestrial mammal fauna. The authors’ focus is on the loss of >10% of endemic terrestrial native mammal fauna since European settlement in 1788. The extent ...

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