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16.351 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Brain-machine interface for eye movements [Neuroscience]

09.12.2014 | Arnulf B. A. Graf; Richard A. Andersen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A number of studies in tetraplegic humans and healthy nonhuman primates (NHPs) have shown that neuronal activity from reach-related cortical areas can be used to predict reach intentions using brain–machine interfaces (BMIs) and therefore assist tetraplegic patients by controlling external ...

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Modeling local and cross-species neuron number variations in the cerebral cortex as arising from a common mechanism [Neuroscience]

09.12.2014 | Diarmuid J. Cahalane; Christine J. Charvet; Barbara L. Finlay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A massive increase in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, driving its size to increase by five orders of magnitude, is a key feature of mammalian evolution. Not only are there systematic variations in cerebral cortical architecture across species, but also across spatial axes within a ...

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Electric fingerprint of voltage sensor domains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09.12.2014 | Caio S. Souza; Cristiano Amaral; Werner Treptow, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A dynamic transmembrane voltage field has been suggested as an intrinsic element in voltage sensor (VS) domains. Here, the dynamic field contribution to the VS energetics was analyzed via electrostatic calculations applied to a number of atomistic structures made available recently. We find that ...

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Protein kinase IKK{beta}-catalyzed phosphorylation of IRF5 at Ser462 induces its dimerization and nuclear translocation in myeloid cells [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Marta Lopez-Pelaez; Douglas J. Lamont; Mark Peggie; Natalia Shpiro; Nathanael S. Gray; Philip Cohen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The siRNA knockdown of IFN Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF5) in the human plasmacytoid dendritic cell line Gen2.2 prevented IFNβ production induced by compound CL097, a ligand for Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). CL097 also stimulated the phosphorylation of IRF5 at Ser462 and stimulated the nuclear ...

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Elevated hippocampal resting-state connectivity underlies deficient neurocognitive function in aging [Neuroscience]

09.12.2014 | Alireza Salami; Sara Pudas; Lars Nyberg, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The brain is not idle during rest. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies have identified several resting-state networks, including the default mode network (DMN), which contains a set of cortical regions that interact with a hippocampus (HC) subsystem. Age-related alterations in the functional ...

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Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Youjun Li; Zhiyi Wei; Yan Yan; Qingwen Wan; Quansheng Du; Mingjie Zhang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb’s ...

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Timing the impact of literacy on visual processing [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

09.12.2014 | Felipe Pegado; Enio Comerlato; Fabricio Ventura; Antoinette Jobert; Kimihiro Nakamura; Marco Buiatti; Paulo Ventura; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Learning to read requires the acquisition of an efficient visual procedure for quickly recognizing fine print. Thus, reading practice could induce a perceptual learning effect in early vision. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in literate and illiterate adults, we previously ...

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Complexity from precipitation reactions [Applied Physical Sciences]

09.12.2014 | Oliver Steinbock, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A key challenge for modern molecular sciences is to bridge the gap between the nanoscopic world and macroscopic devices. The underlying question is whether one can control chemical reactions to produce directly macroscopic complexity, hierarchical order, and ultimately entirely new types of ...

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Structure-guided U2AF65 variant improves recognition and splicing of a defective pre-mRNA [Applied Biological Sciences]

09.12.2014 | Anant A. Agrawal; Krystle J. McLaughlin; Jermaine L. Jenkins; Clara L. Kielkopf, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Purine interruptions of polypyrimidine (Py) tract splice site signals contribute to human genetic diseases. The essential splicing factor U2AF65 normally recognizes a Py tract consensus sequence preceding the major class of 3′ splice sites. We found that neurofibromatosis- or retinitis ...

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Substrate recognition by the cell surface palmitoyl transferase DHHC5 [Cell Biology]

09.12.2014 | Jacqueline Howie; Louise Reilly; Niall J. Fraser; Julia M. Vlachaki Walker; Krzysztof J. Wypijewski; Michael L. J. A ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The cardiac phosphoprotein phospholemman (PLM) regulates the cardiac sodium pump, activating the pump when phosphorylated and inhibiting it when palmitoylated. Protein palmitoylation, the reversible attachment of a 16 carbon fatty acid to a cysteine thiol, is catalyzed by the Asp-His-His-Cys ...

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