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28.357 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Atomic mutagenesis of stop codon nucleotides reveals the chemical prerequisites for release factor-mediated peptide release [Biochemistry]

16.01.2018 | Thomas Philipp Hoernes; Nina Clementi; Michael Andreas Juen; Xinying Shi; Klaus Faserl; Jessica Willi; Catherina Gas ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Termination of protein synthesis is triggered by the recognition of a stop codon at the ribosomal A site and is mediated by class I release factors (RFs). Whereas in bacteria, RF1 and RF2 promote termination at UAA/UAG and UAA/UGA stop codons, respectively, eukaryotes only depend on one RF (eRF1) ...

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SRC1 promotes Th17 differentiation by overriding Foxp3 suppression to stimulate ROR{gamma}t activity in a PKC-{theta}-dependent manner [Immunology and Inflammation]

16.01.2018 | Subha Sen; Fei Wang; Jing Zhang; Zhiheng He; Jian Ma; Yousang Gwack; Jianming Xu; Zuoming Sun, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Th17 cells are major players in multiple autoimmune diseases and are developmentally contingent on reciprocal functionality between the transcription factor Retineic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (RORγt) and Forkhead box protein P3 (Foxp3). Here we deciphered a previously ...

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Estrogen-dependent epigenetic regulation of soluble epoxide hydrolase via DNA methylation [Physiology]

16.01.2018 | Yang-Ming Yang; Dong Sun; Sharath Kandhi; Ghezal Froogh; Jian Zhuge; Weihua Huang; Bruce D. Hammock; An Huang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

To elucidate molecular mechanisms responsible for the sexually dimorphic phenotype of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) expression, we tested the hypothesis that female-specific down-regulation of sEH expression is driven by estrogen-dependent methylation of the Ephx2 gene. Mesenteric arteries ...

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Conserved features of the primate face code [Neuroscience]

16.01.2018 | Charles F. Stevens, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

A recent paper demonstrated that the pattern of firing rates across ∼100 neurons in the anterior medial face patch is closely related to which human face (of 2,000) had been presented to a monkey [Chang L, Tsao DY (2017) Cell 169:1013–1028]. In addition, the firing rates for these neurons can...

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Distinctive roles of age, sex, and genetics in shaping transcriptional variation of human immune responses to microbial challenges [Immunology and Inflammation]

16.01.2018 | Barbara Piasecka; Darragh Duffy; Alejandra Urrutia; Hélène Quach; Etienne Patin; Céline Posseme; Jacob Bergstedt; Br ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The contribution of host genetic and nongenetic factors to immunological differences in humans remains largely undefined. Here, we generated bacterial-, fungal-, and viral-induced immune transcriptional profiles in an age- and sex-balanced cohort of 1,000 healthy individuals and searched for the ...

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Considering hypertonicity in the interpretation and analysis of cell type-specific gene expression pattern in the collecting duct [Biological Sciences]

16.01.2018 | Bayram Edemir, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The different parts of the renal nephron have different functions that are related to reabsorption or secretion processes. This is mediated by genes that show a distinct expression pattern along the renal nephron segments (1). The majority of the segments contain only one epithelial cell type. ...

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Identification of a ubiquitin-binding interface using Rosetta and DEER [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

16.01.2018 | Maxx H. Tessmer; David M. Anderson; Adam M. Pickrum; Molly O. Riegert; Rocco Moretti; Jens Meiler; Jimmy B. Feix; Da ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

ExoU is a type III-secreted cytotoxin expressing A2 phospholipase activity when injected into eukaryotic target cells by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The enzymatic activity of ExoU is undetectable in vitro unless ubiquitin, a required cofactor, is added to the reaction. The role of ...

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Action of steroids and plant triterpenoids on CatSper Ca2+ channels in human sperm [Biological Sciences]

16.01.2018 | Christoph Brenker; Christian Schiffer; Isabel V. Wagner; Frank Tüttelmann; Albrecht Röpke; Andreas Rennhack; U. Benj ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

The sperm-specific Ca2+ channel CatSper (cation channel of sperm) controls the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and, thereby, the swimming behavior of sperm. Human CatSper is activated by progesterone (1, 2), an oviductal hormone, which stimulates Ca2+ influx and motility responses. By ...

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

16.01.2018 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Perineuronal nets and recall of distant fear memories PNN (green) around a parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neuron (red) in rat V2L. Perineuronal nets (PNN) are gauzy, carbohydrate-rich structures that envelop subsets of neurons in the central nervous system, forming a long-lived extracellular ...

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Developmental origins of mosaic evolution in the avian cranium [Evolution]

16.01.2018 | Ryan N. Felice; Anjali Goswami, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2018

Mosaic evolution, which results from multiple influences shaping morphological traits and can lead to the presence of a mixture of ancestral and derived characteristics, has been frequently invoked in describing evolutionary patterns in birds. Mosaicism implies the hierarchical organization of ...

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