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751 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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IKK{beta} is an IRF5 kinase that instigates inflammation [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Junyao Ren; Xiang Chen; Zhijian J. Chen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) is essential for the induction of inflammatory cytokines, but the mechanism by which IRF5 is activated is not well understood. Here we present evidence that the kinase IKKβ phosphorylates and activates IRF5 in response to stimulation ...

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Innate sense of purpose for IKK{beta} [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Matthew S. Hayden; Sankar Ghosh, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The innate immune response is initiated upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by germ-line encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs including transmembrane receptors, typified by the Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytoplasmic receptors, including the ...

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Increased subtlety of transcription factor binding increases complexity of genome regulation [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Peter H. von Hippel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In PNAS, Afek et al. (1) show that the specific (or “consensus”) base-pair sequences of a regulatory DNA target are not solely responsible for controlling the binding affinities of several eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) for their DNA target sites. Rather, so-called “nonconsensus” ...

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Analysis of clock-regulated genes in Neurospora reveals widespread posttranscriptional control of metabolic potential [Cell Biology]

02.12.2014 | Jennifer M. Hurley; Arko Dasgupta; Jillian M. Emerson; Xiaoying Zhou; Carol S. Ringelberg; Nicole Knabe; Anna M. Lip ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Neurospora crassa has been for decades a principal model for filamentous fungal genetics and physiology as well as for understanding the mechanism of circadian clocks. Eukaryotic fungal and animal clocks comprise transcription-translation–based feedback loops that control rhythmic transcription ...

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Protein-DNA binding in the absence of specific base-pair recognition [Biochemistry]

02.12.2014 | Ariel Afek; Joshua L. Schipper; John Horton; Raluca Gordân; David B. Lukatsky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Until now, it has been reasonably assumed that specific base-pair recognition is the only mechanism controlling the specificity of transcription factor (TF)−DNA binding. Contrary to this assumption, here we show that nonspecific DNA sequences possessing certain repeat symmetries, when present ...

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Complex two-component signaling regulates the general stress response in Alphaproteobacteria [Microbiology]

02.12.2014 | Andreas Kaczmarczyk; Ramon Hochstrasser; Julia A. Vorholt; Anne Francez-Charlot, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The general stress response (GSR) in Alphaproteobacteria was recently shown to be controlled by a partner-switching mechanism that is triggered by phosphorylation of the response regulator PhyR. Activation of PhyR ultimately results in release of the alternative extracytoplasmic function sigma ...

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Transcriptional program of Kpna2/Importin-{alpha}2 regulates cellular differentiation-coupled circadian clock development in mammalian cells [Developmental Biology]

25.11.2014 | Yasuhiro Umemura; Nobuya Koike; Tsuguhiro Matsumoto; Seung-Hee Yoo; Zheng Chen; Noriko Yasuhara; Joseph S. Takahashi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The circadian clock in mammalian cells is cell-autonomously generated during the cellular differentiation process, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Here we show that perturbation of the transcriptional program by constitutive expression of transcription factor c-Myc and DNA ...

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The Runt-related transcription factor 1 in prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts [Cell Biology]

18.11.2014 | Hilary A. Coller, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Although most carcinomas arise from a series of genetic alterations in epithelial cells, cancer is a disease that affects not just the transformed cells themselves, but the entire tissue. During tumor development, reciprocal signaling patterns between the cancer cells and the surrounding tissue ...

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Calcium-mediated histone modifications regulate alternative splicing in cardiomyocytes [Biochemistry]

18.11.2014 | Alok Sharma; Hieu Nguyen; Cuiyu Geng; Melissa N. Hinman; Guangbin Luo; Hua Lou, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In cardiomyocytes, calcium is known to control gene expression at the level of transcription, whereas its role in regulating alternative splicing has not been explored. Here we report that, in mouse primary or embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, increased calcium levels induce robust and ...

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EGR2 is critical for peripheral naive T-cell differentiation and the T-cell response to influenza [Immunology and Inflammation]

18.11.2014 | Ning Du; Hyokjoon Kwon; Peng Li; Erin E. West; Jangsuk Oh; Wei Liao; Zuxi Yu; Min Ren; Warren J. Leonard, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Early growth response 2 (EGR2) transcription factor negatively regulates T-cell activation, in contrast to the positive regulation of this process by EGR1. Here, we unexpectedly found that EGR2 promotes peripheral naïve T-cell differentiation, with delayed T-cell receptor-induced proliferation in ...

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