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846 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Roles of unphosphorylated ISGF3 in HCV infection and interferon responsiveness [Immunology and Inflammation]

18.08.2015 | Pil Soo Sung; HyeonJoo Cheon; Chung Hwan Cho; Seon-Hui Hong; Do Youn Park; Hyung-Il Seo; Su-Hyung Park; Seung Kew Yo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Up-regulation of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) is sustained in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected livers. Here, we investigated the mechanism of prolonged ISG expression and its role in IFN responsiveness during HCV infection in relation to unphosphorylated IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (U-ISGF3), ...

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The MYB36 transcription factor orchestrates Casparian strip formation [Plant Biology]

18.08.2015 | Takehiro Kamiya; Monica Borghi; Peng Wang; John M. C. Danku; Lothar Kalmbach; Prashant S. Hosmani; Sadaf Naseer; Tor ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The endodermis in roots acts as a selectivity filter for nutrient and water transport essential for growth and development. This selectivity is enabled by the formation of lignin-based Casparian strips. Casparian strip formation is initiated by the localization of the Casparian strip domain ...

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Two transcription pause elements underlie a {sigma}70-dependent pause cycle [Biochemistry]

11.08.2015 | Eric J. Strobel; Jeffrey W. Roberts, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The movement of RNA polymerase (RNAP) during transcription elongation is modulated by DNA-encoded elements that cause the elongation complex to pause. One of the best-characterized pause sequences is a binding site for the σ70 initiation factor that induces pausing at a site near lambdoid phage ...

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Live-cell superresolution microscopy reveals the organization of RNA polymerase in the bacterial nucleoid [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

11.08.2015 | Mathew Stracy; Christian Lesterlin; Federico Garza de Leon; Stephan Uphoff; Pawel Zawadzki; Achillefs N. Kapanidis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Despite the fundamental importance of transcription, a comprehensive analysis of RNA polymerase (RNAP) behavior and its role in the nucleoid organization in vivo is lacking. Here, we used superresolution microscopy to study the localization and dynamics of the transcription machinery and DNA in ...

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RNA helicase HEL-1 promotes longevity by specifically activating DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]

04.08.2015 | Mihwa Seo; Keunhee Seo; Wooseon Hwang; Hee Jung Koo; Jeong-Hoon Hahm; Jae-Seong Yang; Seong Kyu Han; Daehee Hwang; S ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The homeostatic maintenance of the genomic DNA is crucial for regulating aging processes. However, the role of RNA homeostasis in aging processes remains unknown. RNA helicases are a large family of enzymes that regulate the biogenesis and homeostasis of RNA. However, the functional significance ...

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Simultaneous deletion of the methylcytosine oxidases Tet1 and Tet3 increases transcriptome variability in early embryogenesis [Developmental Biology]

04.08.2015 | Jinsuk Kang; Matthias Lienhard; William A. Pastor; Ashu Chawla; Mark Novotny; Ageliki Tsagaratou; Roger S. Lasken; E ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Dioxygenases of the TET (Ten-Eleven Translocation) family produce oxidized methylcytosines, intermediates in DNA demethylation, as well as new epigenetic marks. Here we show data suggesting that TET proteins maintain the consistency of gene transcription. Embryos lacking Tet1 and Tet3 (Tet1/3 ...

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Opposing roles of STAT1 and STAT3 in IL-21 function in CD4+ T cells [Immunology and Inflammation]

28.07.2015 | Chi-Keung Wan; Allison B. Andraski; Rosanne Spolski; Peng Li; Majid Kazemian; Jangsuk Oh; Leigh Samsel; Phillip A. S ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

IL-21 is a type I cytokine essential for immune cell differentiation and function. Although IL-21 can activate several STAT family transcription factors, previous studies focused mainly on the role of STAT3 in IL-21 signaling. Here, we investigated the role of STAT1 and show that STAT1 and STAT3 ...

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Structural basis and functional analysis of the SARS coronavirus nsp14-nsp10 complex [Microbiology]

28.07.2015 | Yuanyuan Ma; Lijie Wu; Neil Shaw; Yan Gao; Jin Wang; Yuna Sun; Zhiyong Lou; Liming Yan; Rongguang Zhang; Zihe Rao, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) of coronaviruses (CoV) is important for viral replication and transcription. The N-terminal exoribonuclease (ExoN) domain plays a proofreading role for prevention of lethal mutagenesis, and the C-terminal domain functions as a (guanine-N7) methyl transferase ...

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Conserved regulatory mechanism controls the development of cells with rooting functions in land plants [Plant Biology]

21.07.2015 | Thomas Ho Yuen Tam; Bruno Catarino; Liam Dolan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Land plants develop filamentous cells—root hairs, rhizoids, and caulonemata—at the interface with the soil. Members of the group XI basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors encoded by LOTUS JAPONICUS ROOTHAIRLESS1-LIKE (LRL) genes positively regulate the development of root hairs in ...

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Trp triad-dependent rapid photoreduction is not required for the function of Arabidopsis CRY1 [Plant Biology]

21.07.2015 | Jie Gao; Xu Wang; Meng Zhang; Mingdi Bian; Weixian Deng; Zecheng Zuo; Zhenming Yang; Dongping Zhong; Chentao Lin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Cryptochromes in different evolutionary lineages act as either photoreceptors or light-independent transcription repressors. The flavin cofactor of both types of cryptochromes can be photoreduced in vitro by electron transportation via three evolutionarily conserved tryptophan residues known as ...

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