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331 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Delayed Ras/PKA signaling augments the unfolded protein response [Cell Biology]

14.10.2014 | David Pincus; Andrés Aranda-Díaz; Ignacio A. Zuleta; Peter Walter; Hana El-Samad, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

During environmental, developmental, or genetic stress, the cell’s folding capacity can become overwhelmed, and misfolded proteins can accumulate in all cell compartments. Eukaryotes evolved the unfolded protein response (UPR) to counteract proteotoxic stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ...

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Scaling description of the yielding transition in soft amorphous solids at zero temperature [Physics]

07.10.2014 | Jie Lin; Edan Lerner; Alberto Rosso; Matthieu Wyart, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Yield stress materials flow if a sufficiently large shear stress is applied. Although such materials are ubiquitous and relevant for industry, there is no accepted microscopic description of how they yield, even in the simplest situations in which temperature is negligible and in which flow ...

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Expression profiling associates blood and brain glucocorticoid receptor signaling with trauma-related individual differences in both sexes [Neuroscience]

16.09.2014 | Nikolaos P. Daskalakis; Hagit Cohen; Guiqing Cai; Joseph D. Buxbaum; Rachel Yehuda, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Delineating the molecular basis of individual differences in the stress response is critical to understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, 7 d after predator-scent-stress (PSS) exposure, male and female rats were classified into ...

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Xylella fastidiosa outer membrane vesicles modulate plant colonization by blocking attachment to surfaces [Microbiology]

16.09.2014 | Michael Ionescu; Paulo A. Zaini; Clelia Baccari; Sophia Tran; Aline M. da Silva; Steven E. Lindow, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria have been studied intensively in recent years, primarily in their role in delivering virulence factors and antigens during pathogenesis. However, the near ubiquity of their production suggests that they may play other roles, such as ...

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Blood-brain biomarkers for stress susceptibility [Neuroscience]

16.09.2014 | Sumantra Chattarji; Rajnish P. Rao, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that arises in the aftermath of a highly traumatic event and was initially described as “shell shock” in combatants (1). Patients display three primary sets of symptoms: repeated flashbacks of the trauma, hyperarousal, and ...

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Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by {delta}13C in barley grain [Anthropology]

26.08.2014 | Simone Riehl; Konstantin E. Pustovoytov; Heike Weippert; Stefan Klett; Frank Hole, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of ...

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Intergenerational transmission of emotional trauma through amygdala-dependent mother-to-infant transfer of specific fear [Neuroscience]

19.08.2014 | Jacek Debiec; Regina Marie Sullivan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Emotional trauma is transmitted across generations. For example, children witnessing their parent expressing fear to specific sounds or images begin to express fear to those cues. Within normal range, this is adaptive, although pathological fear, such as occurs in posttraumatic stress disorder or ...

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Overexpression of junctophilin-2 does not enhance baseline function but attenuates heart failure development after cardiac stress [Physiology]

19.08.2014 | Ang Guo; Xiaoying Zhang; Venkat Ramesh Iyer; Biyi Chen; Caimei Zhang; William J. Kutschke; Robert M. Weiss; Clara Fr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Heart failure is accompanied by a loss of the orderly disposition of transverse (T)-tubules and a decrease of their associations with the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (jSR). Junctophilin-2 (JP2) is a structural protein responsible for jSR/T-tubule docking. Animal models of cardiac stresses ...

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Different tradeoffs result from alternate genetic adaptations to a common environment [Evolution]

19.08.2014 | Alejandra Rodríguez-Verdugo; David Carrillo-Cisneros; Andrea González-González; Brandon S. Gaut; Albert F. Bennett, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Fitness tradeoffs are often assumed by evolutionary theory, yet little is known about the frequency of fitness tradeoffs during stress adaptation. Even less is known about the genetic factors that confer these tradeoffs and whether alternative adaptive mutations yield contrasting tradeoff ...

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Evolution of physiological responses to salt stress in hexaploid wheat [Plant Biology]

12.08.2014 | Chunwu Yang; Long Zhao; Huakun Zhang; Zongze Yang; Huan Wang; Shanshan Wen; Chunyu Zhang; Sachin Rustgi; Diter von W ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) is generally more salt tolerant than its tetraploid wheat progenitor (Triticum turgidum L.). However, little is known about the physiological basis of this trait or about the relative contributions of allohexaploidization and subsequent ...

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