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348 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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A mechanical-biochemical feedback loop regulates remodeling in the actin cytoskeleton [Cell Biology]

09.12.2014 | Matthew R. Stachowiak; Mark A. Smith; Elizabeth Blankman; Laura M. Chapin; Hayri E. Balcioglu; Shuyuan Wang; Mary C. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cytoskeletal actin assemblies transmit mechanical stresses that molecular sensors transduce into biochemical signals to trigger cytoskeletal remodeling and other downstream events. How mechanical and biochemical signaling cooperate to orchestrate complex remodeling tasks has not been elucidated. ...

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Actin stress in cell reprogramming [Cell Biology]

09.12.2014 | Jun Guo; Yuexiu Wang; Frederick Sachs; Fanjie Meng, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cell mechanics plays a role in stem cell reprogramming and differentiation. To understand this process better, we created a genetically encoded optical probe, named actin–cpstFRET–actin (AcpA), to report forces in actin in living cells in real time. We showed that stemness was associated with ...

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Critical slowing down as early warning for the onset of collapse in mutualistic communities [Environmental Sciences]

09.12.2014 | Vasilis Dakos; Jordi Bascompte, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Tipping points are crossed when small changes in external conditions cause abrupt unexpected responses in the current state of a system. In the case of ecological communities under stress, the risk of approaching a tipping point is unknown, but its stakes are high. Here, we test recently ...

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Structural model of an mRNA in complex with the bacterial chaperone Hfq [Biochemistry]

02.12.2014 | Yi Peng; Joseph E. Curtis; Xianyang Fang; Sarah A. Woodson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The Sm-like protein Hfq (host factor Q-beta phage) facilitates regulation by bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in response to stress and other environmental signals. Here, we present a low-resolution model of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the rpoS mRNA, a bacterial stress response gene that ...

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Complex two-component signaling regulates the general stress response in Alphaproteobacteria [Microbiology]

02.12.2014 | Andreas Kaczmarczyk; Ramon Hochstrasser; Julia A. Vorholt; Anne Francez-Charlot, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The general stress response (GSR) in Alphaproteobacteria was recently shown to be controlled by a partner-switching mechanism that is triggered by phosphorylation of the response regulator PhyR. Activation of PhyR ultimately results in release of the alternative extracytoplasmic function sigma ...

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Synergy between Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels confers high-strain mechanosensitivity to articular cartilage [Physiology]

25.11.2014 | Whasil Lee; Holly A. Leddy; Yong Chen; Suk Hee Lee; Nicole A. Zelenski; Amy L. McNulty; Jason Wu; Kellie N. Beicker; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Diarthrodial joints are essential for load bearing and locomotion. Physiologically, articular cartilage sustains millions of cycles of mechanical loading. Chondrocytes, the cells in cartilage, regulate their metabolic activities in response to mechanical loading. Pathological mechanical stress ...

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Role for NUP62 depletion and PYK2 redistribution in dendritic retraction resulting from chronic stress [Neuroscience]

11.11.2014 | Yayoi Kinoshita; Richard G. Hunter; Jason D. Gray; Roxana Mesias; Bruce S. McEwen; Deanna L. Benson; D. Stave Kohtz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Genetic evidence suggests cell-type–specific functions for certain nucleoporins, and gene expression profiling has revealed that nucleoporin p62 (NUP62) transcripts are decreased in the prefrontal cortex of major depressives. Chronic stress, which can precipitate depression, induces changes in ...

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HsfB2b-mediated repression of PRR7 directs abiotic stress responses of the circadian clock [Plant Biology]

11.11.2014 | Elsebeth Kolmos; Brenda Y. Chow; Jose L. Pruneda-Paz; Steve A. Kay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The circadian clock perceives environmental signals to reset to local time, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we present data revealing that a member of the heat shock factor (Hsf) family is involved in the input pathway to the plant circadian clock. Using the ...

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Individual differences in the peripheral immune system promote resilience versus susceptibility to social stress [Neuroscience]

11.11.2014 | Georgia E. Hodes; Madeline L. Pfau; Marylene Leboeuf; Sam A. Golden; Daniel J. Christoffel; Dana Bregman; Nicole Reb ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Depression and anxiety disorders are associated with increased release of peripheral cytokines; however, their functional relevance remains unknown. Using a social stress model in mice, we find preexisting individual differences in the sensitivity of the peripheral immune system that predict and ...

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The protein Compromised Hydrolysis of Triacylglycerols 7 (CHT7) acts as a repressor of cellular quiescence in Chlamydomonas [Plant Biology]

04.11.2014 | Chia-Hong Tsai; Jaruswan Warakanont; Tomomi Takeuchi; Barb B. Sears; Eric R. Moellering; Christoph Benning, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Microalgae are prolific photosynthetic organisms that have the potential to sustainably produce high-value chemical feedstocks. However, an industry based on microalgal biomass still is faced with challenges. For example, microalgae tend to accumulate valuable compounds, such as triacylglycerols, ...

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