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1.500 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Creative template-dependent synthesis by human polymerase mu [Biochemistry]

18.08.2015 | Andrea F. Moon; Rajendrakumar A. Gosavi; Thomas A. Kunkel; Lars C. Pedersen; Katarzyna Bebenek, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Among the many proteins used to repair DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) are two related family X DNA polymerases, Pol λ and Pol µ. Which of these two polymerases is preferentially used for filling DNA gaps during NHEJ partly depends on sequence complementarity at the ...

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Synthetic physical interactions map kinetochore regulators and regions sensitive to constitutive Cdc14 localization [Cell Biology]

18.08.2015 | Guðjón Ólafsson; Peter H. Thorpe, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The location of proteins within eukaryotic cells is often critical for their function and relocation of proteins forms the mainstay of regulatory pathways. To assess the importance of protein location to cellular homeostasis, we have developed a methodology to systematically create binary ...

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How amide hydrogens exchange in native proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

18.08.2015 | Filip Persson; Bertil Halle, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Amide hydrogen exchange (HX) is widely used in protein biophysics even though our ignorance about the HX mechanism makes data interpretation imprecise. Notably, the open exchange-competent conformational state has not been identified. Based on analysis of an ultralong molecular dynamics ...

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Mapping the conformation of a client protein through the Hsp70 functional cycle [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

18.08.2015 | Ashok Sekhar; Rina Rosenzweig; Guillaume Bouvignies; Lewis E. Kay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) chaperone system is ubiquitous, highly conserved, and involved in a myriad of diverse cellular processes. Its function relies on nucleotide-dependent interactions with client proteins, yet the structural features of folding-competent substrates in their ...

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The MYB36 transcription factor orchestrates Casparian strip formation [Plant Biology]

18.08.2015 | Takehiro Kamiya; Monica Borghi; Peng Wang; John M. C. Danku; Lothar Kalmbach; Prashant S. Hosmani; Sadaf Naseer; Tor ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The endodermis in roots acts as a selectivity filter for nutrient and water transport essential for growth and development. This selectivity is enabled by the formation of lignin-based Casparian strips. Casparian strip formation is initiated by the localization of the Casparian strip domain ...

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Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins [Physics]

18.08.2015 | Jeffrey K. Weber; Diwakar Shukla; Vijay S. Pande, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous ...

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An ancestral bacterial division system is widespread in eukaryotic mitochondria [Colloquium Paper]

18.08.2015 | Michelle M. Leger; Markéta Petrů; Vojtěch Žárský; Laura Eme; Čestmír Vlček; Tommy Harding; B. Franz Lang; Marek Eliá ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Bacterial division initiates at the site of a contractile Z-ring composed of polymerized FtsZ. The location of the Z-ring in the cell is controlled by a system of three mutually antagonistic proteins, MinC, MinD, and MinE. Plastid division is also known to be dependent on homologs of these ...

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In situ proteolysis of the Vibrio cholerae matrix protein RbmA promotes biofilm recruitment [Microbiology]

18.08.2015 | Daniel R. Smith; Manuel Maestre-Reyna; Gloria Lee; Harry Gerard; Andrew H.-J. Wang; Paula I. Watnick, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The estuarine gram-negative rod and human diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae synthesizes a VPS exopolysaccharide-dependent biofilm matrix that allows it to form a 3D structure on surfaces. Proteins associated with the matrix include, RbmA, RbmC, and Bap1. RbmA, a protein whose crystallographic ...

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RabGDI{alpha} is a negative regulator of interferon-{gamma}-inducible GTPase-dependent cell-autonomous immunity to Toxoplasma gondii [Immunology and Inflammation]

18.08.2015 | Jun Ohshima; Miwa Sasai; Jianfa Liu; Kazuo Yamashita; Ji Su Ma; Youngae Lee; Hironori Bando; Jonathan C. Howard; Shi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

IFN-γ orchestrates cell-autonomous host defense against various intracellular vacuolar pathogens. IFN-γ–inducible GTPases, such as p47 immunity-related GTPases (IRGs) and p65 guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs), are recruited to pathogen-containing vacuoles, which is important for disruption of the ...

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Mosaic nature of the mitochondrial proteome: Implications for the origin and evolution of mitochondria [Colloquium Paper]

18.08.2015 | Michael W. Gray, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Comparative studies of the mitochondrial proteome have identified a conserved core of proteins descended from the α-proteobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to the mitochondrion and was the source of the mitochondrial genome in contemporary eukaryotes. A surprising result of phylogenetic ...

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