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1.429 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Organization and dynamics of the nonhomologous end-joining machinery during DNA double-strand break repair [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

19.05.2015 | Dylan A. Reid; Sarah Keegan; Alejandra Leo-Macias; Go Watanabe; Natasha T. Strande; Howard H. Chang; Betul Akgol Oks ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is a major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), involving synapsis and ligation of the broken strands. We describe the use of in vivo and in vitro single-molecule methods to define the organization and interaction of NHEJ repair proteins at DSB ...

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Therapeutic effects of cell-permeant peptides that activate G proteins downstream of growth factors [Cell Biology]

19.05.2015 | Gary S. Ma; Nicolas Aznar; Nicholas Kalogriopoulos; Krishna K. Midde; Inmaculada Lopez-Sanchez; Emi Sato; Ying Dunke ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In eukaryotes, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and trimeric G proteins are two major signaling hubs. Signal transduction via trimeric G proteins has long been believed to be triggered exclusively by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This paradigm has recently been challenged by several ...

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Lack of pairing during meiosis triggers multigenerational transgene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans [Genetics]

19.05.2015 | Luciana E. Leopold; Bree N. Heestand; Soobin Seong; Ludmila Shtessel; Shawn Ahmed, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Single-copy transgenes in Caenorhabditis elegans can be subjected to a potent, irreversible silencing process termed small RNA-induced epigenetic silencing (RNAe). RNAe is promoted by the Piwi Argonaute protein PRG-1 and associated Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), as well as by proteins that ...

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Role of a ribosomal RNA phosphate oxygen during the EF-G-triggered GTP hydrolysis [Chemistry]

19.05.2015 | Miriam Koch; Sara Flür; Christoph Kreutz; Eric Ennifar; Ronald Micura; Norbert Polacek, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Elongation factor-catalyzed GTP hydrolysis is a key reaction during the ribosomal elongation cycle. Recent crystal structures of G proteins, such as elongation factor G (EF-G) bound to the ribosome, as well as many biochemical studies, provide evidence that the direct interaction of translational ...

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Dictyostelium discoideum has a highly Q/N-rich proteome and shows an unusual resilience to protein aggregation [Cell Biology]

19.05.2015 | Liliana Malinovska; Sandra Palm; Kimberley Gibson; Jean-Marc Verbavatz; Simon Alberti, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Many protein-misfolding diseases are caused by proteins carrying prion-like domains. These proteins show sequence similarity to yeast prion proteins, which can interconvert between an intrinsically disordered and an aggregated prion state. The natural presence of prions in yeast has provided ...

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Platelet Gi protein G{alpha}i2 is an essential mediator of thrombo-inflammatory organ damage in mice [Pharmacology]

19.05.2015 | Vasudharani Devanathan; Ina Hagedorn; David Köhler; Katja Pexa; Deya Cherpokova; Peter Kraft; Madhurendra Singh; Pet ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Platelets are crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis and exacerbate tissue injury following ischemia and reperfusion. Important regulators of platelet function are G proteins controlled by seven transmembrane receptors. The Gi protein Gαi2 mediates platelet activation in vitro, but its in vivo ...

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Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc [Neuroscience]

19.05.2015 | Charles T. Anderson; Robert J. Radford; Melissa L. Zastrow; Daniel Y. Zhang; Ulf-Peter Apfel; Stephen J. Lippard; Th ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. ...

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Solution structure of the PsIAA4 oligomerization domain reveals interaction modes for transcription factors in early auxin response [Plant Biology]

12.05.2015 | Dhurvas Chandrasekaran Dinesh; Michael Kovermann; Mohanraj Gopalswamy; Antje Hellmuth; Luz Irina A. Calderón Villalo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The plant hormone auxin activates primary response genes by facilitating proteolytic removal of AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (AUX/IAA)-inducible repressors, which directly bind to transcriptional AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORS (ARF). Most AUX/IAA and ARF proteins share highly conserved C-termini mediating ...

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Diabetes-associated dysregulation of O-GlcNAcylation in rat cardiac mitochondria [Biochemistry]

12.05.2015 | Partha S. Banerjee; Junfeng Ma; Gerald W. Hart, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Elevated mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation caused by hyperglycemia, as occurs in diabetes, significantly contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction and to diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, little is known about the enzymology of mitochondrial O-GlcNAcylation. Herein, we investigated the enzymes ...

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The ribosome can discriminate the chirality of amino acids within its peptidyl-transferase center [Biochemistry]

12.05.2015 | Michael T. Englander; Joshua L. Avins; Rachel C. Fleisher; Bo Liu; Philip R. Effraim; Jiangning Wang; Klaus Schulten ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The cellular translational machinery (TM) synthesizes proteins using exclusively L- or achiral aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs), despite the presence of D-amino acids in nature and their ability to be aminoacylated onto tRNAs by aa-tRNA synthetases. The ubiquity of L-amino acids in proteins has led to ...

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