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1.314 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Halorhodopsin pumps Cl- and bacteriorhodopsin pumps protons by a common mechanism that uses conserved electrostatic interactions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

18.11.2014 | Yifan Song; M. R. Gunner, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Key mutations differentiate the functions of homologous proteins. One example compares the inward ion pump halorhodopsin (HR) and the outward proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Of the nine essential buried ionizable residues in BR, six are conserved in HR. However, HR changes three BR acids, D85 ...

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Liat1, an arginyltransferase-binding protein whose evolution among primates involved changes in the numbers of its 10-residue repeats [Biochemistry]

18.11.2014 | Christopher S. Brower; Connor E. Rosen; Richard H. Jones; Brandon C. Wadas; Konstantin I. Piatkov; Alexander Varshavsky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The arginyltransferase Ate1 is a component of the N-end rule pathway, which recognizes proteins containing N-terminal degradation signals called N-degrons, polyubiquitylates these proteins, and thereby causes their degradation by the proteasome. At least six isoforms of mouse Ate1 are produced ...

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Molecular insights into DNA interference by CRISPR-associated nuclease-helicase Cas3 [Biochemistry]

18.11.2014 | Bei Gong; Minsang Shin; Jiali Sun; Che-Hun Jung; Edward L. Bolt; John van der Oost; Jeong-Sun Kim, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Mobile genetic elements in bacteria are neutralized by a system based on clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins. Type I CRISPR-Cas systems use a “Cascade” ribonucleoprotein complex to guide RNA specifically to complementary ...

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The general mode of translation inhibition by macrolide antibiotics [Biochemistry]

11.11.2014 | Krishna Kannan; Pinal Kanabar; David Schryer; Tanja Florin; Eugene Oh; Neil Bahroos; Tanel Tenson; Jonathan S. Weiss ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Macrolides are clinically important antibiotics thought to inhibit bacterial growth by impeding the passage of newly synthesized polypeptides through the nascent peptide exit tunnel of the bacterial ribosome. Recent data challenged this view by showing that macrolide antibiotics can ...

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Arabidopsis protein arginine methyltransferase 3 is required for ribosome biogenesis by affecting precursor ribosomal RNA processing [Plant Biology]

11.11.2014 | Runlai Hang; Chunyan Liu; Ayaz Ahmad; Yong Zhang; Falong Lu; Xiaofeng Cao, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Ribosome biogenesis is a fundamental and tightly regulated cellular process, including synthesis, processing, and assembly of rRNAs with ribosomal proteins. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have been implicated in many important biological processes, such as ribosome biogenesis. Two ...

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Benchmarking all-atom simulations using hydrogen exchange [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

11.11.2014 | John J. Skinner; Wookyung Yu; Elizabeth K. Gichana; Michael C. Baxa; James R. Hinshaw; Karl F. Freed; Tobin R. Sosnick, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Long-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are now able to fold small proteins reversibly to their native structures [Lindorff-Larsen K, Piana S, Dror RO, Shaw DE (2011) Science 334(6055):517–520]. These results indicate that modern force fields can reproduce the energy surface near the native ...

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New approach to capture and characterize synaptic proteome [Neuroscience]

11.11.2014 | Xin-An Liu; Beena Kadakkuzha; Bruce Pascal; Caitlin Steckler; Komolitdin Akhmedov; Long Yan; Michael Chalmers; Sathy ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Little is known regarding the identity of the population of proteins that are transported and localized to synapses. Here we describe a new approach that involves the isolation and systematic proteomic characterization of molecular motor kinesins to identify the populations of proteins ...

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Self-assembled MmsF proteinosomes control magnetite nanoparticle formation in vitro [Chemistry]

11.11.2014 | Andrea E. Rawlings; Jonathan P. Bramble; Robyn Walker; Jennifer Bain; Johanna M. Galloway; Sarah S. Staniland, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize highly uniform intracellular magnetite nanoparticles through the action of several key biomineralization proteins. These proteins are present in a unique lipid-bound organelle (the magnetosome) that functions as a nanosized reactor in which the particle is ...

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Folding pathway of a multidomain protein depends on its topology of domain connectivity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

11.11.2014 | Takashi Inanami; Tomoki P. Terada; Masaki Sasai, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

How do the folding mechanisms of multidomain proteins depend on protein topology? We addressed this question by developing an Ising-like structure-based model and applying it for the analysis of free-energy landscapes and folding kinetics of an example protein, Escherichia coli dihydrofolate ...

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The nature of protein folding pathways [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

11.11.2014 | S. Walter Englander; Leland Mayne, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

How do proteins fold, and why do they fold in that way? This Perspective integrates earlier and more recent advances over the 50-y history of the protein folding problem, emphasizing unambiguously clear structural information. Experimental results show that, contrary to prior belief, proteins are ...

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