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420 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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ERK signaling couples nutrient status to antiviral defense in the insect gut [Immunology]

10.09.2013 | Jie Xu; Kaycie Hopkins; Leah Sabin; Ari Yasunaga; Harry Subramanian; Ian Lamborn; Beth Gordesky-Gold; Sara Cherry, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

A unique facet of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) infection is that the pathogens are orally acquired by an insect vector during the taking of a blood meal, which directly links nutrient acquisition and pathogen challenge. We show that the nutrient responsive ERK pathway is both induced by and ...

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Definition of a third VLR gene in hagfish [Immunology]

10.09.2013 | Jianxu Li; Sabyasachi Das; Brantley R. Herrin; Masayuki Hirano; Max D. Cooper, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes) have an alternative adaptive immune system in which lymphocytes somatically diversify their variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) through recombinatorial use of leucine-rich repeat cassettes during VLR gene assembly. Three types of these anticipatory receptors in ...

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Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of {alpha}1-antitrypsin without inhibition of elastase [Immunology]

10.09.2013 | Danny Jonigk; Mariam Al-Omari; Lavinia Maegel; Meike Müller; Nicole Izykowski; Jaewoo Hong; Kwangwon Hong; Soo-Hyun ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The rationale of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy to treat progressive emphysema in AAT-deficient patients is based on inhibition of neutrophil elastase; however, the benefit of this treatment remains unclear. Here we show that clinical grade AAT (with elastase inhibitory activity) and a ...

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Blockade of A2A receptors potently suppresses the metastasis of CD73+ tumors [Immunology]

03.09.2013 | Paul A. Beavis; Upulie Divisekera; Christophe Paget; Melvyn T. Chow; Liza B. John; Christel Devaud; Karen Dwyer; Joh ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

CD73 inhibits antitumor immunity through the activation of adenosine receptors expressed on multiple immune subsets. CD73 also enhances tumor metastasis, although the nature of the immune subsets and adenosine receptor subtypes involved in this process are largely unknown. In this study, we ...

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Cytosolic flagellin-induced lysosomal pathway regulates inflammasome-dependent and -independent macrophage responses [Immunology]

27.08.2013 | Silvia L. Lage; Carina L. Buzzo; Eduardo P. Amaral; Kely C. Matteucci; Liliana M. Massis; Marcelo Y. Icimoto; Adrian ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

NAIP5/NLRC4 (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5/nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor family, caspase activation recruitment domain domain-containing 4) inflammasome activation by cytosolic flagellin results in caspase-1–mediated processing and secretion of IL-1β/IL-18 and ...

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Nonclassical MHC class I-dependent invariant T cells are evolutionarily conserved and prominent from early development in amphibians [Immunology]

27.08.2013 | Eva-Stina Edholm; Liz-Marie Albertorio Saez; Ann L. Gill; Steven R. Gill; Leon Grayfer; Nikesha Haynes; Jason R. Mye ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Human and murine MHC nonclassical class Ib-restricted invariant T (iT) cell subsets, such as invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT) and mucosal-associated invariant T cells, have specialized functions early in immune responses, especially in modulating subsequent adaptive immune responses. Here, ...

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R-spondin3 prevents mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion-induced tissue damage by tightening endothelium and preventing vascular leakage [Immunology]

27.08.2013 | Lakshmi Kannan; Katalin Kis-Toth; Kazuhisa Yoshiya; To-Ha Thai; Seema Sehrawat; Tanya N. Mayadas; Jurandir J. Dalle ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Inflammation and vascular injury triggered by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in a number of clinical settings. Wnt and its homolog partners R-spondins, in addition to regulating embryonic development have recently been demonstrated to serve as ...

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Differential splicing across immune system lineages [Immunology]

27.08.2013 | Ayla Ergun; Graeme Doran; James C. Costello; Henry H. Paik; James J. Collins; Diane Mathis; Christophe Benoist; ImmG ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Alternative splicing (AS) allows increased diversity and orthogonal regulation of the transcriptional products of mammalian genomes. To assess the distribution and variation of alternative splicing across cell lineages of the immune system, we comprehensively analyzed RNA sequencing and ...

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Human circulating influenza-CD4+ ICOS1+IL-21+ T cells expand after vaccination, exert helper function, and predict antibody responses [Immunology]

27.08.2013 | Fabiana Spensieri; Erica Borgogni; Luisanna Zedda; Monia Bardelli; Francesca Buricchi; Gianfranco Volpini; Elena Fra ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Protection against influenza is mediated by neutralizing antibodies, and their induction at high and sustained titers is key for successful vaccination. Optimal B cells activation requires delivery of help from CD4+ T lymphocytes. In lymph nodes and tonsils, T-follicular helper cells have been ...

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CD8 memory T cells have a bioenergetic advantage that underlies their rapid recall ability [Immunology]

27.08.2013 | Gerritje J. W. van der Windt; David O’Sullivan; Bart Everts; Stanley Ching-Cheng Huang; Michael D. Buck; Jonathan D. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

A characteristic of memory T (TM) cells is their ability to mount faster and stronger responses to reinfection than naïve T (TN) cells do in response to an initial infection. However, the mechanisms that allow this rapid recall are not completely understood. We found that CD8 TM cells have more...

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