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459 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Stable expression and function of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor requires palmitoylation by a DHHC6/selenoprotein K complex [Immunology and Inflammation]

18.11.2014 | Gregory J. Fredericks; FuKun W. Hoffmann; Aaron H. Rose; Hanna J. Osterheld; Franz M. Hess; Frederic Mercier; Peter ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Calcium (Ca2+) is a secondary messenger in cells and Ca2+ flux initiated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores via inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) binding to the IP3 receptor (IP3R) is particularly important for the activation and function of immune cells. Previous studies demonstrated that ...

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Single-cell mass cytometry of TCR signaling: Amplification of small initial differences results in low ERK activation in NOD mice [Immunology and Inflammation]

18.11.2014 | Michael Mingueneau; Smita Krishnaswamy; Matthew H. Spitzer; Sean C. Bendall; Erica L. Stone; Stephen M. Hedrick; Dan ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Signaling from the T-cell receptor (TCR) conditions T-cell differentiation and activation, requiring exquisite sensitivity and discrimination. Using mass cytometry, a high-dimensional technique that can probe multiple signaling nodes at the single-cell level, we interrogate TCR signaling dynamics ...

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Signaling pathways activated by a protease allergen in basophils [Immunology and Inflammation]

18.11.2014 | Rachel K. Rosenstein; Jelena S. Bezbradica; Shuang Yu; Ruslan Medzhitov, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Allergic diseases represent a significant burden in industrialized countries, but why and how the immune system responds to allergens remain largely unknown. Because many clinically significant allergens have proteolytic activity, and many helminths express proteases that are necessary for their ...

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Human NLRP3 inflammasome senses multiple types of bacterial RNAs [Immunology and Inflammation]

11.11.2014 | Wenwen Sha; Hiroki Mitoma; Shino Hanabuchi; Musheng Bao; Leiyun Weng; Naoshi Sugimoto; Ying Liu; Zhiqiang Zhang; Jin ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Inflammasomes are multiprotein platforms that activate caspase-1, which leads to the processing and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Previous studies demonstrated that bacterial RNAs activate the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing family, pyrin ...

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Role of disease-associated tolerance in infectious superspreaders [Immunology and Inflammation]

04.11.2014 | Smita Gopinath; Joshua S. Lichtman; Donna M. Bouley; Joshua E. Elias; Denise M. Monack, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Natural populations show striking heterogeneity in their ability to transmit disease. For example, a minority of infected individuals known as superspreaders carries out the majority of pathogen transmission events. In a mouse model of Salmonella infection, a subset of infected hosts becomes ...

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TLR-dependent phagosome tubulation in dendritic cells promotes phagosome cross-talk to optimize MHC-II antigen presentation [Immunology and Inflammation]

28.10.2014 | Adriana R. Mantegazza; Allison L. Zajac; Alison Twelvetrees; Erika L. F. Holzbaur; Sebastián Amigorena; Michael S. Marks, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose large particles like bacteria at sites of infection and progressively degrade them within maturing phagosomes. Phagosomes in DCs are also signaling platforms for pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and sites for assembly of ...

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Intestinal myofibroblast-specific Tpl2-Cox-2-PGE2 pathway links innate sensing to epithelial homeostasis [Immunology and Inflammation]

28.10.2014 | Manolis Roulis; Christoforos Nikolaou; Elena Kotsaki; Eleanna Kaffe; Niki Karagianni; Vasiliki Koliaraki; Klelia Sal ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Tumor progression locus-2 (Tpl2) kinase is a major inflammatory mediator in immune cell types recently found to be genetically associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here we show that Tpl2 may exert a dominant homeostatic rather than inflammatory function in the intestine mediated ...

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Inflammasome activation leads to Caspase-1-dependent mitochondrial damage and block of mitophagy [Immunology and Inflammation]

28.10.2014 | Jiujiu Yu; Hajime Nagasu; Tomohiko Murakami; Hai Hoang; Lori Broderick; Hal M. Hoffman; Tiffany Horng, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Inflammasomes are intracellular sensors that couple detection of pathogens and cellular stress to activation of Caspase-1, and consequent IL-1β and IL-18 maturation and pyroptotic cell death. Here, we show that the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like ...

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Human TLR10 is an anti-inflammatory pattern-recognition receptor [Immunology and Inflammation]

21.10.2014 | Marije Oosting; Shih-Chin Cheng; Judith M. Bolscher; Rachel Vestering-Stenger; Theo S. Plantinga; Ineke C. Verschuer ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Toll-like receptor (TLR)10 is the only pattern-recognition receptor without known ligand specificity and biological function. We demonstrate that TLR10 is a modulatory receptor with mainly inhibitory effects. Blocking TLR10 by antagonistic antibodies enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production, ...

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Selection of the lamprey VLRC antigen receptor repertoire [Immunology and Inflammation]

14.10.2014 | Stephen J. Holland; Mingming Gao; Masayuki Hirano; Lakshminarayan M. Iyer; Ming Luo; Michael Schorpp; Max D. Cooper; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The alternative adaptive immune system of jawless vertebrates is based on different isotypes of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that are composed of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and expressed by distinct B- and T-like lymphocyte lineages. VLRB is expressed by B-like cells, whereas VLRA and ...

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