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810 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification [Evolution]

18.11.2014 | Marjorie G. Weber; Anurag A. Agrawal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that ...

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Trait-based diversification shifts reflect differential extinction among fossil taxa [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

18.11.2014 | Peter J. Wagner; George F. Estabrook, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Evolution provides many cases of apparent shifts in diversification associated with particular anatomical traits. Three general models connect these patterns to anatomical evolution: (i) elevated net extinction of taxa bearing particular traits, (ii) elevated net speciation of taxa bearing ...

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Horizontal transfer beyond genes [Microbiology]

11.11.2014 | Eugene V. Koonin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major process in the evolution of bacteria and archaea (1–3) that is thought to be the principal source of functional innovation in microbial evolution (4, 5). The signal of vertical, tree-like evolution is detectable primarily among genes encoding components ...

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Timing and heterogeneity of mutations associated with drug resistance in metastatic cancers [Applied Mathematics]

11.11.2014 | Ivana Bozic; Martin A. Nowak, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Targeted therapies provide an exciting new approach to combat human cancer. The immediate effect is a dramatic reduction in disease burden, but in most cases, the tumor returns as a consequence of resistance. Various mechanisms for the evolution of resistance have been implicated, including ...

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Remodeling in bone without osteocytes: Billfish challenge bone structure-function paradigms [Evolution]

11.11.2014 | Ayelet Atkins; Mason N. Dean; Maria Laura Habegger; Phillip J. Motta; Lior Ofer; Felix Repp; Anna Shipov; Steve Wein ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A remarkable property of tetrapod bone is its ability to detect and remodel areas where damage has accumulated through prolonged use. This process, believed vital to the long-term health of bone, is considered to be initiated and orchestrated by osteocytes, cells within the bone matrix. It is ...

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Form of an evolutionary tradeoff affects eco-evolutionary dynamics in a predator-prey system [Ecology]

11.11.2014 | Minoru Kasada; Masato Yamamichi; Takehito Yoshida, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Evolution on a time scale similar to ecological dynamics has been increasingly recognized for the last three decades. Selection mediated by ecological interactions can change heritable phenotypic variation (i.e., evolution), and evolution of traits, in turn, can affect ecological interactions. ...

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Not surprisingly, no inheritance of a trait results in no evolution [Biological Sciences]

11.11.2014 | Philip W. Hedrick; David W. Coltman; Marco Festa-Bianchet; Fanie Pelletier, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Traill et al. (1) conclude that the “decline in body mass of the bighorn population is largely attributable to demographic change and environmental factors” and “expect our conclusions to hold for horn length too.” Three of us (D.W.C., M.F.-B., and F.P.) provided data from the Ram Mountain ...

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Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants [Evolution]

11.11.2014 | Norman J. Wickett; Siavash Mirarab; Nam Nguyen; Tandy Warnow; Eric Carpenter; Naim Matasci; Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular ...

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Algorithms, complexity, and the sciences [Evolution]

11.11.2014 | Christos Papadimitriou, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Algorithms, perhaps together with Moore’s law, compose the engine of the information technology revolution, whereas complexity—the antithesis of algorithms—is one of the deepest realms of mathematical investigation. After introducing the basic concepts of algorithms and complexity, and the ...

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Predictable transcriptome evolution in the convergent and complex bioluminescent organs of squid [Evolution]

04.11.2014 | M. Sabrina Pankey; Vladimir N. Minin; Greg C. Imholte; Marc A. Suchard; Todd H. Oakley, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Despite contingency in life’s history, the similarity of evolutionarily convergent traits may represent predictable solutions to common conditions. However, the extent to which overall gene expression levels (transcriptomes) underlying convergent traits are themselves convergent remains largely ...

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