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748 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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An alternative polyadenylation mechanism coopted to the Arabidopsis RPP7 gene through intronic retrotransposon domestication [Plant Biology]

10.09.2013 | Tokuji Tsuchiya; Thomas Eulgem, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Transposable elements (TEs) can drive evolution by creating genetic and epigenetic variation. Although examples of adaptive TE insertions are accumulating, proof that epigenetic information carried by such “domesticated” TEs has been coopted to control host gene function is still limited. We show ...

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Segmenting the human genome based on states of neutral genetic divergence [Evolution]

03.09.2013 | Prabhani Kuruppumullage Don; Guruprasad Ananda; Francesca Chiaromonte; Kateryna D. Makova, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Many studies have demonstrated that divergence levels generated by different mutation types vary and covary across the human genome. To improve our still-incomplete understanding of the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon, we analyze several mutation types simultaneously, anchoring their ...

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Implications for the evolution of eukaryotic amino-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) enzymes from the structure of an archaeal ortholog [Biochemistry]

03.09.2013 | Glen Liszczak; Ronen Marmorstein, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Amino-terminal acetylation is a ubiquitous modification in eukaryotes that is involved in a growing number of biological processes. There are six known eukaryotic amino-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), which are differentiated from one another on the basis of substrate specificity. To date, ...

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Small molecules mediate bacterial farming by social amoebae [Chemistry]

03.09.2013 | Robert A. Raguso, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

The origin of domestication persists as an important question at the nexus between biology, archaeology, and history (1). As intensive research continues apace on organisms whose domestication accompanied the emergence of modern human societies (2, 3), the study of agricultural evolution has ...

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Synchronous interhemispheric Holocene climate trends in the tropical Andes [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

03.09.2013 | Pratigya J. Polissar; Mark B. Abbott; Alexander P. Wolfe; Mathias Vuille; Maximiliano Bezada, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Holocene variations of tropical moisture balance have been ascribed to orbitally forced changes in solar insolation. If this model is correct, millennial-scale climate evolution should be antiphased between the northern and southern hemispheres, producing humid intervals in one hemisphere matched ...

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Transcription termination controls prophage maintenance in Escherichia coli genomes [Microbiology]

27.08.2013 | Rachid Menouni; Stéphanie Champ; Leon Espinosa; Marc Boudvillain; Mireille Ansaldi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Prophages represent a large fraction of prokaryotic genomes and often provide new functions to their hosts, in particular virulence and fitness. How prokaryotic cells maintain such gene providers is central for understanding bacterial genome evolution by horizontal transfer. Prophage excision ...

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A closure scheme for chemical master equations [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

27.08.2013 | Patrick Smadbeck; Yiannis N. Kaznessis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Probability reigns in biology, with random molecular events dictating the fate of individual organisms, and propelling populations of species through evolution. In principle, the master probability equation provides the most complete model of probabilistic behavior in biomolecular networks. In ...

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Availability of public goods shapes the evolution of competing metabolic strategies [Evolution]

27.08.2013 | Herwig Bachmann; Martin Fischlechner; Iraes Rabbers; Nakul Barfa; Filipe Branco dos Santos; Douwe Molenaar; Bas Teusink, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Tradeoffs provide a rationale for the outcome of natural selection. A prominent example is the negative correlation between the growth rate and the biomass yield in unicellular organisms. This tradeoff leads to a dilemma, where the optimization of growth rate is advantageous for an individual, ...

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Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

20.08.2013 | Martin Hughes; Sylvain Gerber; Matthew Albion Wills, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of ...

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Experiments on the role of deleterious mutations as stepping stones in adaptive evolution [Evolution]

20.08.2013 | Arthur W. Covert III; Richard E. Lenski; Claus O. Wilke; Charles Ofria, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2013

Many evolutionary studies assume that deleterious mutations necessarily impede adaptive evolution. However, a later mutation that is conditionally beneficial may interact with a deleterious predecessor before it is eliminated, thereby providing access to adaptations that might otherwise be ...

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