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969 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Rapid and widespread de novo evolution of kin discrimination [Evolution]

21.07.2015 | Olaya Rendueles; Peter C. Zee; Iris Dinkelacker; Michaela Amherd; Sébastien Wielgoss; Gregory J. Velicer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Diverse forms of kin discrimination, broadly defined as alteration of social behavior as a function of genetic relatedness among interactants, are common among social organisms from microbes to humans. However, the evolutionary origins and causes of kin-discriminatory behavior remain largely ...

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Clonality and intracellular polyploidy in virus evolution and pathogenesis [Colloquium Paper]

21.07.2015 | Celia Perales; Elena Moreno; Esteban Domingo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In the present article we examine clonality in virus evolution. Most viruses retain an active recombination machinery as a potential means to initiate new levels of genetic exploration that go beyond those attainable solely by point mutations. However, despite abundant recombination that may be ...

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Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations [Colloquium Paper]

21.07.2015 | Francisco J. Ayala, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the ...

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In the light of evolution IX: Clonal reproduction: Alternatives to sex [Introductions]

21.07.2015 | Michel Tibayrenc; John C. Avise; Francisco J. Ayala, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Evolutionary studies of clonal organisms have advanced considerably in recent years, but are still fledgling. Although recent textbooks on evolution or genetics might give the impression that nonsexual reproduction is an anomaly in the living world, clonality is the rule rather than the exception ...

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Statistical universals reveal the structures and functions of human music [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

21.07.2015 | Patrick E. Savage; Steven Brown; Emi Sakai; Thomas E. Currie, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Music has been called “the universal language of mankind.” Although contemporary theories of music evolution often invoke various musical universals, the existence of such universals has been disputed for decades and has never been empirically demonstrated. Here we combine a music-classification ...

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How fish power suction feeding [Evolution]

14.07.2015 | Mark W. Westneat; Aaron M. Olsen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

If you go fishing and cast your lure out across a pond, settling it skillfully by the lily pads, you may see the water drop out from under your bait with a sucking whirlpool as you engage with the most popular sport fish in the world, the largemouth bass. Almost...

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Swimming muscles power suction feeding in largemouth bass [Evolution]

14.07.2015 | Ariel L. Camp; Thomas J. Roberts; Elizabeth L. Brainerd, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Most aquatic vertebrates use suction to capture food, relying on rapid expansion of the mouth cavity to accelerate water and food into the mouth. In ray-finned fishes, mouth expansion is both fast and forceful, and therefore requires considerable power. However, the cranial muscles of these ...

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Magnetic levitation of single cells [Applied Biological Sciences]

14.07.2015 | Naside Gozde Durmus; H. Cumhur Tekin; Sinan Guven; Kaushik Sridhar; Ahu Arslan Yildiz; Gizem Calibasi; Ionita Ghiran ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Several cellular events cause permanent or transient changes in inherent magnetic and density properties of cells. Characterizing these changes in cell populations is crucial to understand cellular heterogeneity in cancer, immune response, infectious diseases, drug resistance, and evolution. ...

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The role of clade competition in the diversification of North American canids [Evolution]

14.07.2015 | Daniele Silvestro; Alexandre Antonelli; Nicolas Salamin; Tiago B. Quental, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The history of biodiversity is characterized by a continual replacement of branches in the tree of life. The rise and demise of these branches (clades) are ultimately determined by changes in speciation and extinction rates, often interpreted as a response to varying abiotic and biotic factors. ...

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New Age of Fishes initiated by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction [Evolution]

14.07.2015 | Elizabeth C. Sibert; Richard D. Norris, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) comprise nearly half of all modern vertebrate diversity, and are an ecologically and numerically dominant megafauna in most aquatic environments. Crown teleost fishes diversified relatively recently, during the Late Cretaceous and early Paleogene, although the ...

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