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1.142 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Evolution of the knowledge system for agricultural development in the Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico [Sustainability Science]

26.04.2016 | Ellen B. McCullough; Pamela A. Matson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Knowledge systems—networks of linked actors, organizations, and objects that perform a number of knowledge-related functions that link knowledge and know how with action—have played a key role in fostering agricultural development over the last 50 years. We examine the evolution of the knowledge ...

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Evolution of models to support community and policy action with science: Balancing pastoral livelihoods and wildlife conservation in savannas of East Africa [Sustainability Science]

26.04.2016 | R. S. Reid; D. Nkedianye; M. Y. Said; D. Kaelo; M. Neselle; O. Makui; L. Onetu; S. Kiruswa; N. Ole Kamuaro; P. Krist ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

We developed a “continual engagement” model to better integrate knowledge from policy makers, communities, and researchers with the goal of promoting more effective action to balance poverty alleviation and wildlife conservation in 4 pastoral ecosystems of East Africa. The model involved the ...

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Recurrent specialization on a toxic fruit in an island Drosophila population [Evolution]

26.04.2016 | Amir Yassin; Vincent Debat; Héloïse Bastide; Nelly Gidaszewski; Jean R. David; John E. Pool, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Recurrent specialization on similar host plants offers a unique opportunity to unravel the evolutionary and genetic mechanisms underlying dietary shifts. Recent studies have focused on ecological races belonging to the same species, but it is hard in many cases to untangle the role of adaptive ...

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A high-precision chronological model for the decorated Upper Paleolithic cave of Chauvet-Pont d’Arc, Ardeche, France [Anthropology]

26.04.2016 | Anita Quiles; Hélène Valladas; Hervé Bocherens; Emmanuelle Delqué-Količ; Evelyne Kaltnecker; Johannes van der Plicht ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Radiocarbon dates for the ancient drawings in the Chauvet-Pont d’Arc Cave revealed ages much older than expected. These early ages and nature of this Paleolithic art make this United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) site indisputably unique. A large, ...

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Predictable evolution toward flightlessness in volant island birds [Ecology]

26.04.2016 | Natalie A. Wright; David W. Steadman; Christopher C. Witt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Birds are prolific colonists of islands, where they readily evolve distinct forms. Identifying predictable, directional patterns of evolutionary change in island birds, however, has proved challenging. The “island rule” predicts that island species evolve toward intermediate sizes, but its ...

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Making short-term climate forecasts useful: Linking science and action [Sustainability Science]

26.04.2016 | James Buizer; Katharine Jacobs; David Cash, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

This paper discusses the evolution of scientific and social understanding that has led to the development of knowledge systems supporting the application of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forecasts, including the development of successful efforts to connect climate predictions with sectoral ...

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The effect of gene interactions on the long-term response to selection [Evolution]

19.04.2016 | Tiago Paixão; Nicholas H. Barton, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The role of gene interactions in the evolutionary process has long been controversial. Although some argue that they are not of importance, because most variation is additive, others claim that their effect in the long term can be substantial. Here, we focus on the long-term effects of genetic ...

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Culture shapes the evolution of cognition [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

19.04.2016 | Bill Thompson; Simon Kirby; Kenny Smith, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

A central debate in cognitive science concerns the nativist hypothesis, the proposal that universal features of behavior reflect a biologically determined cognitive substrate: For example, linguistic nativism proposes a domain-specific faculty of language that strongly constrains which languages ...

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Heterochromatin and genetic conflict [Evolution]

12.04.2016 | Colin D. Meiklejohn, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Meiosis is a dangerous business. The two alleles in diploid organisms share an evolutionary interest in the survival and reproduction of their host individual; however, as soon as they segregate into haploid gametes, these alleles find themselves competing for transmission to the next generation ...

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Host-parasite oscillation dynamics and evolution in a compartmentalized RNA replication system [Biochemistry]

12.04.2016 | Yohsuke Bansho; Taro Furubayashi; Norikazu Ichihashi; Tetsuya Yomo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

To date, various cellular functions have been reconstituted in vitro such as self-replication systems using DNA, RNA, and proteins. The next important challenges include the reconstitution of the interactive networks of self-replicating species and investigating how such interactions generate ...

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