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795 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Sexual selection on wing interference patterns in Drosophila melanogaster [Evolution]

21.10.2014 | Natsu Katayama; Jessica K. Abbott; Jostein Kjærandsen; Yuma Takahashi; Erik I. Svensson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Animals with color vision use color information in intra- and interspecific communication, which in turn may drive the evolution of conspicuous colored body traits via natural and sexual selection. A recent study found that the transparent wings of small flies and wasps in lower-reflectance light ...

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Occupation of bare habitats, an evolutionary precursor to soil specialization in plants [Evolution]

21.10.2014 | N. Ivalú Cacho; Sharon Y. Strauss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Plant soil specialists contribute greatly to global diversity; however, the ecoevolutionary forces responsible for generating this diversity are poorly understood. We integrate molecular phylogenies with descriptive and experimental ecological data, creating a powerful framework with which to ...

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Computational design of a self-assembling symmetrical {beta}-propeller protein [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

21.10.2014 | Arnout R. D. Voet; Hiroki Noguchi; Christine Addy; David Simoncini; Daiki Terada; Satoru Unzai; Sam-Yong Park; Kam Y ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The modular structure of many protein families, such as β-propeller proteins, strongly implies that duplication played an important role in their evolution, leading to highly symmetrical intermediate forms. Previous attempts to create perfectly symmetrical propeller proteins have failed, however. ...

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Multiple origins of serpentine-soil endemism explained by preexisting tolerance of open habitats [Evolution]

21.10.2014 | W. Scott Armbruster, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Plant specialization on soils derived from unusual parent materials is an important contributor to regional biodiversity. These stressful substrates include serpentine, gabbro, and other ultramafic rocks rich in heavy metals. The effect of substrate on plant diversity is illustrated by serpentine ...

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Allopolyploidy, diversification, and the Miocene grassland expansion [Evolution]

21.10.2014 | Matt C. Estep; Michael R. McKain; Dilys Vela Diaz; Jinshun Zhong; John G. Hodge; Trevor R. Hodkinson; Daniel J. Layt ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The role of polyploidy, particularly allopolyploidy, in plant diversification is a subject of debate. Whole-genome duplications precede the origins of many major clades (e.g., angiosperms, Brassicaceae, Poaceae), suggesting that polyploidy drives diversification. However, theoretical arguments ...

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Tug-of-war between driver and passenger mutations in cancer and other adaptive processes [Evolution]

21.10.2014 | Christopher D. McFarland; Leonid A. Mirny; Kirill S. Korolev, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cancer progression is an example of a rapid adaptive process where evolving new traits is essential for survival and requires a high mutation rate. Precancerous cells acquire a few key mutations that drive rapid population growth and carcinogenesis. Cancer genomics demonstrates that these few ...

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Hopping and the Stokes-Einstein relation breakdown in simple glass formers [Physics]

21.10.2014 | Patrick Charbonneau; Yuliang Jin; Giorgio Parisi; Francesco Zamponi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

One of the most actively debated issues in the study of the glass transition is whether a mean-field description is a reasonable starting point for understanding experimental glass formers. Although the mean-field theory of the glass transition—like that of other statistical systems—is exact when ...

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Erosion of functional independence early in the evolution of a microbial mutualism [Evolution]

14.10.2014 | Kristina L. Hillesland; Sujung Lim; Jason J. Flowers; Serdar Turkarslan; Nicolas Pinel; Grant M. Zane; Nicholas Elli ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Many species have evolved to function as specialized mutualists, often to the detriment of their ability to survive independently. However, there are few, if any, well-controlled observations of the evolutionary processes underlying the genesis of new mutualisms. Here, we show that within the ...

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A mechanistic framework for noncell autonomous stem cell induction in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

07.10.2014 | Gabor Daum; Anna Medzihradszky; Takuya Suzaki; Jan U. Lohmann, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cell–cell communication is essential for multicellular development and, consequently, evolution has brought about an array of distinct mechanisms serving this purpose. Consistently, induction and maintenance of stem cell fate by noncell autonomous signals is a feature shared by many organisms and ...

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Structural adaptations to diverse fighting styles in sexually selected weapons [Evolution]

07.10.2014 | Erin L. McCullough; Bret W. Tobalske; Douglas J. Emlen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The shapes of sexually selected weapons differ widely among species, but the drivers of this diversity remain poorly understood. Existing explanations suggest weapon shapes reflect structural adaptations to different fighting styles, yet explicit tests of this hypothesis are lacking. We ...

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