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828 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Modeling local and cross-species neuron number variations in the cerebral cortex as arising from a common mechanism [Neuroscience]

09.12.2014 | Diarmuid J. Cahalane; Christine J. Charvet; Barbara L. Finlay, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

A massive increase in the number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, driving its size to increase by five orders of magnitude, is a key feature of mammalian evolution. Not only are there systematic variations in cerebral cortical architecture across species, but also across spatial axes within a ...

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Phylogenetic reconstruction of Bantu kinship challenges Main Sequence Theory of human social evolution [Anthropology]

09.12.2014 | Christopher Opie; Susanne Shultz; Quentin D. Atkinson; Thomas Currie; Ruth Mace, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Kinship provides the fundamental structure of human society: descent determines the inheritance pattern between generations, whereas residence rules govern the location a couple moves to after they marry. In turn, descent and residence patterns determine other key relationships such as alliance, ...

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Network dynamics of the brain and influence of the epileptic seizure onset zone [Neuroscience]

09.12.2014 | Samuel P. Burns; Sabato Santaniello; Robert B. Yaffe; Christophe C. Jouny; Nathan E. Crone; Gregory K. Bergey; Willi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The human brain is a dynamic networked system. Patients with partial epileptic seizures have focal regions that periodically diverge from normal brain network dynamics during seizures. We studied the evolution of brain connectivity before, during, and after seizures with graph-theoretic ...

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New insight into the evolution of the vertebrate respiratory system and the discovery of unidirectional airflow in iguana lungs [Evolution]

02.12.2014 | Robert L. Cieri; Brent A. Craven; Emma R. Schachner; C. G. Farmer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The generally accepted framework for the evolution of a key feature of the avian respiratory system, unidirectional airflow, is that it is an adaptation for efficiency of gas exchange and expanded aerobic capacities, and therefore it has historically been viewed as important to the ability of ...

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Static network structure can stabilize human cooperation [Evolution]

02.12.2014 | David G. Rand; Martin A. Nowak; James H. Fowler; Nicholas A. Christakis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The evolution of cooperation in network-structured populations has been a major focus of theoretical work in recent years. When players are embedded in fixed networks, cooperators are more likely to interact with, and benefit from, other cooperators. In theory, this clustering can foster ...

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Reducing the genetic code induces massive rearrangement of the proteome [Evolution]

02.12.2014 | Patrick O’Donoghue; Laure Prat; Martin Kucklick; Johannes G. Schäfer; Katharina Riedel; Jesse Rinehart; Dieter Söll; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Expanding the genetic code is an important aim of synthetic biology, but some organisms developed naturally expanded genetic codes long ago over the course of evolution. Less than 1% of all sequenced genomes encode an operon that reassigns the stop codon UAG to pyrrolysine (Pyl), a genetic code ...

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Termite queens close the sperm gates of eggs to switch from sexual to asexual reproduction [Evolution]

02.12.2014 | Toshihisa Yashiro; Kenji Matsuura, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Males and females are in conflict over genetic transmission in the evolution of parthenogenesis, because it enhances female reproductive output but deprives the males’ genetic contribution. For males, any trait that coerces females into sexual reproduction should increase their fitness. However, ...

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Preservation of viral genomes in 700-y-old caribou feces from a subarctic ice patch [Microbiology]

25.11.2014 | Terry Fei Fan Ng; Li-Fang Chen; Yanchen Zhou; Beth Shapiro; Mathias Stiller; Peter D. Heintzman; Arvind Varsani; Nik ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Viruses preserved in ancient materials provide snapshots of past viral diversity and a means to trace viral evolution through time. Here, we use a metagenomics approach to identify filterable and nuclease-resistant nucleic acids preserved in 700-y-old caribou feces frozen in a permanent ice ...

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In vitro evolution of high-titer, virus-like vesicles containing a single structural protein [Microbiology]

25.11.2014 | Nina F. Rose; Linda Buonocore; John B. Schell; Anasuya Chattopadhyay; Kapil Bahl; Xinran Liu; John K. Rose, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Self-propagating, infectious, virus-like vesicles (VLVs) are generated when an alphavirus RNA replicon expresses the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) as the only structural protein. The mechanism that generates these VLVs lacking a capsid protein has remained a mystery for over 20 ...

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Trajectory and genomic determinants of fungal-pathogen speciation and host adaptation [Evolution]

25.11.2014 | Xiao Hu; Guohua Xiao; Peng Zheng; Yanfang Shang; Yao Su; Xinyu Zhang; Xingzhong Liu; Shuai Zhan; Raymond J. St. Lege ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Much remains unknown regarding speciation. Host–pathogen interactions are a major driving force for diversification, but the genomic basis for speciation and host shifting remains unclear. The fungal genus Metarhizium contains species ranging from specialists with very narrow host ranges to ...

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