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883 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Erosion during extreme flood events dominates Holocene canyon evolution in northeast Iceland [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

24.02.2015 | Edwin R. C. Baynes; Mikaël Attal; Samuel Niedermann; Linda A. Kirstein; Andrew J. Dugmore; Mark Naylor, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Extreme flood events have the potential to cause catastrophic landscape change in short periods of time (100 to 103 h). However, their impacts are rarely considered in studies of long-term landscape evolution (>103 y), because the mechanisms of erosion during such floods are poorly constrained. ...

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Constraints on the evolution of a doublesex target gene arising from doublesex's pleiotropic deployment [Genetics]

24.02.2015 | Shengzhan D. Luo; Bruce S. Baker, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

“Regulatory evolution,” that is, changes in a gene’s expression pattern through changes at its regulatory sequence, rather than changes at the coding sequence of the gene or changes of the upstream transcription factors, has been increasingly recognized as a pervasive evolution mechanism. Many ...

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Convergence of ion channel genome content in early animal evolution [Evolution]

24.02.2015 | Benjamin J. Liebeskind; David M. Hillis; Harold H. Zakon, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Multicellularity has evolved multiple times, but animals are the only multicellular lineage with nervous systems. This fact implies that the origin of nervous systems was an unlikely event, yet recent comparisons among extant taxa suggest that animal nervous systems may have evolved multiple ...

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Interchangeable allies: Exploiting development and selection to swap symbionts [Evolution]

17.02.2015 | Nicole M. Gerardo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The interdependence of some microbes and their hosts is profound. Coevolution has led to hosts whose survival and reproduction is dependent upon the presence of a specific microbial partner, and to microbes that have adapted to life within hosts. Such obligate microbial symbioses are present ...

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Rate of language evolution is affected by population size [Evolution]

17.02.2015 | Lindell Bromham; Xia Hua; Thomas G. Fitzpatrick; Simon J. Greenhill, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The effect of population size on patterns and rates of language evolution is controversial. Do languages with larger speaker populations change faster due to a greater capacity for innovation, or do smaller populations change faster due to more efficient diffusion of innovations? Do smaller ...

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Matching times of leading and following suggest cooperation through direct reciprocity during V-formation flight in ibis [Evolution]

17.02.2015 | Bernhard Voelkl; Steven J. Portugal; Markus Unsöld; James R. Usherwood; Alan M. Wilson; Johannes Fritz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

One conspicuous feature of several larger bird species is their annual migration in V-shaped or echelon formation. When birds are flying in these formations, energy savings can be achieved by using the aerodynamic up-wash produced by the preceding bird. As the leading bird in a formation cannot ...

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Experimental replacement of an obligate insect symbiont [Evolution]

17.02.2015 | Nancy A. Moran; Yueli Yun, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Symbiosis, the close association of unrelated organisms, has been pivotal in biological diversification. In the obligate symbioses found in many insect hosts, organisms that were once independent are permanently and intimately associated, resulting in expanded ecological capabilities. The primary ...

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Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root [Evolution]

17.02.2015 | Romain Derelle; Guifré Torruella; Vladimír Klimeš; Henner Brinkmann; Eunsoo Kim; Čestmír Vlček; B. Franz Lang; Marek ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The large phylogenetic distance separating eukaryotic genes and their archaeal orthologs has prevented identification of the position of the eukaryotic root in phylogenomic studies. Recently, an innovative approach has been proposed to circumvent this issue: the use as phylogenetic markers of ...

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Scaling laws describe memories of host-pathogen riposte in the HIV population [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

17.02.2015 | John P. Barton; Mehran Kardar; Arup K. Chakraborty, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The enormous genetic diversity and mutability of HIV has prevented effective control of this virus by natural immune responses or vaccination. Evolution of the circulating HIV population has thus occurred in response to diverse, ultimately ineffective, immune selection pressures that randomly ...

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The spontaneous emergence of conventions: An experimental study of cultural evolution [Applied Physical Sciences]

17.02.2015 | Damon Centola; Andrea Baronchelli, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

How do shared conventions emerge in complex decentralized social systems? This question engages fields as diverse as linguistics, sociology, and cognitive science. Previous empirical attempts to solve this puzzle all presuppose that formal or informal institutions, such as incentives for global ...

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