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929 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Reappraisal of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Archean rocks [Evolution]

12.05.2015 | Katherine L. French; Christian Hallmann; Janet M. Hope; Petra L. Schoon; J. Alex Zumberge; Yosuke Hoshino; Carl A. P ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Hopanes and steranes found in Archean rocks have been presented as key evidence supporting the early rise of oxygenic photosynthesis and eukaryotes, but the syngeneity of these hydrocarbon biomarkers is controversial. To resolve this debate, we performed a multilaboratory study of new cores from ...

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Hybrid apomicts trapped in the ecological niches of their sexual ancestors [Evolution]

05.05.2015 | Martin Mau; John T. Lovell; José M. Corral; Christiane Kiefer; Marcus A. Koch; Olawale M. Aliyu; Timothy F. Sharbel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Asexual reproduction is expected to reduce the adaptive potential to novel or changing environmental conditions, restricting or altering the ecological niche of asexual lineages. Asexual lineages of plants and animals are typically polyploid, an attribute that may influence their genetic ...

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Error, signal, and the placement of Ctenophora sister to all other animals [Evolution]

05.05.2015 | Nathan V. Whelan; Kevin M. Kocot; Leonid L. Moroz; Kenneth M. Halanych, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Elucidating relationships among early animal lineages has been difficult, and recent phylogenomic analyses place Ctenophora sister to all other extant animals, contrary to the traditional view of Porifera as the earliest-branching animal lineage. To date, phylogenetic support for either ...

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The resurrection genome of Boea hygrometrica: A blueprint for survival of dehydration [Plant Biology]

05.05.2015 | Lihong Xiao; Ge Yang; Liechi Zhang; Xinhua Yang; Shuang Zhao; Zhongzhong Ji; Qing Zhou; Min Hu; Yu Wang; Ming Chen; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

“Drying without dying” is an essential trait in land plant evolution. Unraveling how a unique group of angiosperms, the Resurrection Plants, survive desiccation of their leaves and roots has been hampered by the lack of a foundational genome perspective. Here we report the ∼1,691-Mb sequenced ...

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Endosymbiosis undone by stepwise elimination of the plastid in a parasitic dinoflagellate [Evolution]

05.05.2015 | Sebastian G. Gornik; Febrimarsa; Andrew M. Cassin; James I. MacRae; Abhinay Ramaprasad; Zineb Rchiad; Malcolm J. McC ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Organelle gain through endosymbiosis has been integral to the origin and diversification of eukaryotes, and, once gained, plastids and mitochondria seem seldom lost. Indeed, discovery of nonphotosynthetic plastids in many eukaryotes—notably, the apicoplast in apicomplexan parasites such as the ...

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Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction [Environmental Sciences]

05.05.2015 | Malgorzata Stylo; Nadja Neubert; Yuheng Wang; Nikhil Monga; Stephen J. Romaniello; Stefan Weyer; Rizlan Bernier-Latmani, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in ...

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Convergent evolution toward an improved growth rate and a reduced resistance range in Prochlorococcus strains resistant to phage [Evolution]

28.04.2015 | Sarit Avrani; Debbie Lindell, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Prochlorococcus is an abundant marine cyanobacterium that grows rapidly in the environment and contributes significantly to global primary production. This cyanobacterium coexists with many cyanophages in the oceans, likely aided by resistance to numerous co-occurring phages. Spontaneous ...

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Meteorite zircon constraints on the bulk Lu-Hf isotope composition and early differentiation of the Earth [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

28.04.2015 | Tsuyoshi Iizuka; Takao Yamaguchi; Yuki Hibiya; Yuri Amelin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Knowledge of planetary differentiation is crucial for understanding the chemical and thermal evolution of terrestrial planets. The 176Lu−176Hf radioactive decay system has been widely used to constrain the timescales and mechanisms of silicate differentiation on Earth, but the data interpretation ...

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Insights into the origins of fish hunting in venomous cone snails from studies of Conus tessulatus [Evolution]

21.04.2015 | Joseph W. Aman; Julita S. Imperial; Beatrix Ueberheide; Min-Min Zhang; Manuel Aguilar; Dylan Taylor; Maren Watkins; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Prey shifts in carnivorous predators are events that can initiate the accelerated generation of new biodiversity. However, it is seldom possible to reconstruct how the change in prey preference occurred. Here we describe an evolutionary “smoking gun” that illuminates the transition from worm ...

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Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental change [Evolution]

21.04.2015 | Gene Hunt; Melanie J. Hopkins; Scott Lidgard, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor–descendant ...

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