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817 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification [Evolution]

18.11.2014 | Marjorie G. Weber; Anurag A. Agrawal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that ...

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Trait-based diversification shifts reflect differential extinction among fossil taxa [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

18.11.2014 | Peter J. Wagner; George F. Estabrook, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Evolution provides many cases of apparent shifts in diversification associated with particular anatomical traits. Three general models connect these patterns to anatomical evolution: (i) elevated net extinction of taxa bearing particular traits, (ii) elevated net speciation of taxa bearing ...

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Maximum likelihood inference of reticulate evolutionary histories [Evolution]

18.11.2014 | Yun Yu; Jianrong Dong; Kevin J. Liu; Luay Nakhleh, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Hybridization plays an important role in the evolution of certain groups of organisms, adaptation to their environments, and diversification of their genomes. The evolutionary histories of such groups are reticulate, and methods for reconstructing them are still in their infancy and have limited ...

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Rapid diversification of five Oryza AA genomes associated with rice adaptation [Genetics]

18.11.2014 | Qun-Jie Zhang; Ting Zhu; En-Hua Xia; Chao Shi; Yun-Long Liu; Yun Zhang; Yuan Liu; Wen-Kai Jiang; You-Jie Zhao; Shu-Y ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Comparative genomic analyses among closely related species can greatly enhance our understanding of plant gene and genome evolution. We report de novo-assembled AA-genome sequences for Oryza nivara, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza barthii, Oryza glumaepatula, and Oryza meridionalis. Our analyses reveal ...

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Trait-based extinction catches the Red Queen napping during the Cambrian [Evolution]

18.11.2014 | P. David Polly, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The tenuous balance between speciation and extinction governs the rise and fall of diversity within clades, from which have emerged the sweeping changes in Earth’s standing biodiversity since life’s origin (1, 2). In a clade where speciation and extinction are equally likely, net diversity ...

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Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution [Evolution]

18.11.2014 | Andrew H. Moeller; Yingying Li; Eitel Mpoudi Ngole; Steve Ahuka-Mundeke; Elizabeth V. Lonsdorf; Anne E. Pusey; Marti ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic ...

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Asymmetrical integration of sensory information during mating decisions in grasshoppers [Neuroscience]

18.11.2014 | Jan Clemens; Stefanie Krämer; Bernhard Ronacher, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Decision-making processes, like all traits of an organism, are shaped by evolution; they thus carry a signature of the selection pressures associated with choice behaviors. The way sexual communication signals are integrated during courtship likely reflects the costs and benefits associated with ...

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Directed evolution of an ultrastable carbonic anhydrase for highly efficient carbon capture from flue gas [Evolution]

18.11.2014 | Oscar Alvizo; Luan J. Nguyen; Christopher K. Savile; Jamie A. Bresson; Satish L. Lakhapatri; Earl O. P. Solis; Richa ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is one of nature’s fastest enzymes and can dramatically improve the economics of carbon capture under demanding environments such as coal-fired power plants. The use of CA to accelerate carbon capture is limited by the enzyme’s sensitivity to the harsh process conditions. ...

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Liat1, an arginyltransferase-binding protein whose evolution among primates involved changes in the numbers of its 10-residue repeats [Biochemistry]

18.11.2014 | Christopher S. Brower; Connor E. Rosen; Richard H. Jones; Brandon C. Wadas; Konstantin I. Piatkov; Alexander Varshavsky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The arginyltransferase Ate1 is a component of the N-end rule pathway, which recognizes proteins containing N-terminal degradation signals called N-degrons, polyubiquitylates these proteins, and thereby causes their degradation by the proteasome. At least six isoforms of mouse Ate1 are produced ...

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Horizontal transfer beyond genes [Microbiology]

11.11.2014 | Eugene V. Koonin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major process in the evolution of bacteria and archaea (1–3) that is thought to be the principal source of functional innovation in microbial evolution (4, 5). The signal of vertical, tree-like evolution is detectable primarily among genes encoding components ...

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