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960 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Structure of LacY with an {alpha}-substituted galactoside: Connecting the binding site to the protonation site [Biochemistry]

21.07.2015 | Hemant Kumar; Janet S. Finer-Moore; H. Ronald Kaback; Robert M. Stroud, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The X-ray crystal structure of a conformationally constrained mutant of the Escherichia coli lactose permease (the LacY double-Trp mutant Gly-46→Trp/Gly-262→Trp) with bound p-nitrophenyl-α-d-galactopyranoside (α-NPG), a high-affinity lactose analog, is described. With the exception of Glu-126 ...

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Sex hormone-dependent tRNA halves enhance cell proliferation in breast and prostate cancers [Biochemistry]

21.07.2015 | Shozo Honda; Phillipe Loher; Megumi Shigematsu; Juan P. Palazzo; Ryusuke Suzuki; Issei Imoto; Isidore Rigoutsos; Yoh ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Sex hormones and their receptors play critical roles in the development and progression of the breast and prostate cancers. Here we report that a novel type of transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived small RNA, termed Sex HOrmone-dependent TRNA-derived RNAs (SHOT-RNAs), are specifically and abundantly ...

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Skip residues modulate the structural properties of the myosin rod and guide thick filament assembly [Biochemistry]

21.07.2015 | Keenan C. Taylor; Massimo Buvoli; Elif Nihal Korkmaz; Ada Buvoli; Yuqing Zheng; Nathan T. Heinze; Qiang Cui; Leslie ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The rod of sarcomeric myosins directs thick filament assembly and is characterized by the insertion of four skip residues that introduce discontinuities in the coiled-coil heptad repeats. We report here that the regions surrounding the first three skip residues share high structural similarity ...

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Structure and mechanism of the ATPase that powers viral genome packaging [Biochemistry]

21.07.2015 | Brendan J. Hilbert; Janelle A. Hayes; Nicholas P. Stone; Caroline M. Duffy; Banumathi Sankaran; Brian A. Kelch, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Many viruses package their genomes into procapsids using an ATPase machine that is among the most powerful known biological motors. However, how this motor couples ATP hydrolysis to DNA translocation is still unknown. Here, we introduce a model system with unique properties for studying motor ...

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Mapping the binding interface of ERK and transcriptional repressor Capicua using photocrosslinking [Biochemistry]

14.07.2015 | Alan S. Futran; Saw Kyin; Stanislav Y. Shvartsman; A. James Link, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) coordinates cellular responses to a range of stimuli by phosphorylating its numerous substrates. One of these substrates, Capicua (Cic), is a transcriptional repressor that was first identified in Drosophila and has been implicated in a number of human ...

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Role of RAG1 autoubiquitination in V(D)J recombination [Biochemistry]

14.07.2015 | Samarendra K. Singh; Martin Gellert, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The variable domains of Ig and T-cell receptor genes in vertebrates are assembled from gene fragments by the V(D)J recombination process. The RAG1–RAG2 recombinase (RAG1/2) initiates this recombination by cutting DNA at the borders of recombination signal sequences (RSS) and their neighboring ...

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Probing the structural and molecular basis of nucleotide selectivity by human mitochondrial DNA polymerase {gamma} [Biochemistry]

14.07.2015 | Christal D. Sohl; Michal R. Szymanski; Andrea C. Mislak; Christie K. Shumate; Sheida Amiralaei; Raymond F. Schinazi; ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the essential components of highly active antiretroviral (HAART) therapy targeting HIV reverse transcriptase (RT). NRTI triphosphates (NRTI-TP), the biologically active forms, act as chain terminators of viral DNA synthesis. ...

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FUS functions in coupling transcription to splicing by mediating an interaction between RNAP II and U1 snRNP [Biochemistry]

14.07.2015 | Yong Yu; Robin Reed, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Pre-mRNA splicing is coupled to transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We previously showed that U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) associates with RNAP II, and both RNAP II and U1 snRNP are also the most abundant factors associated with the protein fused-in-sarcoma (FUS), which is ...

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Structural insights into the assembly of the histone deacetylase-associated Sin3L/Rpd3L corepressor complex [Biochemistry]

14.07.2015 | Michael D. Clark; Ryan Marcum; Richard Graveline; Clarence W. Chan; Tao Xie; Zhonglei Chen; Yujia Ding; Yongbo Zhang ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Acetylation is correlated with chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activation, but its regulation by histone deacetylase (HDAC)-bearing corepressor complexes is poorly understood. Here, we describe the mechanism of assembly of the mammalian Sin3L/Rpd3L complex facilitated by Sds3, a ...

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Enzyme mechanism-based, oxidative DNA-protein cross-links formed with DNA polymerase {beta} in vivo [Biochemistry]

14.07.2015 | Jason L. Quiñones; Upasna Thapar; Kefei Yu; Qingming Fang; Robert William Sobol; Bruce Demple, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Free radical attack on the C1′ position of DNA deoxyribose generates the oxidized abasic (AP) site 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). Upon encountering dL, AP lyase enzymes such as DNA polymerase β (Polβ) form dead-end, covalent intermediates in vitro during attempted DNA repair. However, the conditions ...

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