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827 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Full-length structure of a monomeric histidine kinase reveals basis for sensory regulation [Biochemistry]

16.12.2014 | Giomar Rivera-Cancel; Wen-huang Ko; Diana R. Tomchick; Fernando Correa; Kevin H. Gardner, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Although histidine kinases (HKs) are critical sensors of external stimuli in prokaryotes, the mechanisms by which their sensor domains control enzymatic activity remain unclear. Here, we report the full-length structure of a blue light-activated HK from Erythrobacter litoralis HTCC2594 (EL346) ...

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Stoichiometry and assembly of mTOR complexes revealed by single-molecule pulldown [Biochemistry]

16.12.2014 | Ankur Jain; Edwin Arauz; Vasudha Aggarwal; Nikita Ikon; Jie Chen; Taekjip Ha, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase is a master regulator of cellular, developmental, and metabolic processes. Deregulation of mTOR signaling is implicated in numerous human diseases including cancer and diabetes. mTOR functions as part of either of the two multisubunit complexes, ...

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Site-specific cation release drives actin filament severing by vertebrate cofilin [Biochemistry]

16.12.2014 | Hyeran Kang; Michael J. Bradley; Wenxiang Cao; Kaifeng Zhou; Elena E. Grintsevich; Alphée Michelot; Charles V. Sinde ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Actin polymerization powers the directed motility of eukaryotic cells. Sustained motility requires rapid filament turnover and subunit recycling. The essential regulatory protein cofilin accelerates network remodeling by severing actin filaments and increasing the concentration of ends available ...

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Erythritol feeds the pentose phosphate pathway via three new isomerases leading to D-erythrose-4-phosphate in Brucella [Biochemistry]

16.12.2014 | Thibault Barbier; François Collard; Amaia Zúñiga-Ripa; Ignacio Moriyón; Thibault Godard; Judith Becker; Christoph Wi ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Erythritol is an important nutrient for several α-2 Proteobacteria, including N2-fixing plant endosymbionts and Brucella, a worldwide pathogen that finds this four-carbon polyol in genital tissues. Erythritol metabolism involves phosphorylation to l-erythritol-4-phosphate by the kinase EryA and ...

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UbcH7 regulates 53BP1 stability and DSB repair [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Xiangzi Han; Lei Zhang; Jinsil Chung; Franklin Mayca Pozo; Amanda Tran; Darcie D. Seachrist; James W. Jacobberger; R ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is not only key to genome stability but is also an important anticancer target. Through an shRNA library-based screening, we identified ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme H7 (UbcH7, also known as Ube2L3), a ubiquitin E2 enzyme, as a critical player in DSB repair. ...

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Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Youjun Li; Zhiyi Wei; Yan Yan; Qingwen Wan; Quansheng Du; Mingjie Zhang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb’s ...

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Innate sense of purpose for IKK{beta} [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Matthew S. Hayden; Sankar Ghosh, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The innate immune response is initiated upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by germ-line encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs including transmembrane receptors, typified by the Toll-like receptors (TLR) and cytoplasmic receptors, including the ...

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MAGUKs end a tale of promiscuity [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Carsten Reissner; Markus Missler, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) constitute a family of scaffold molecules involved in diverse cellular processes, such as cell–cell communication, cell polarity, and signal transduction (1). MAGUKs are multidomain proteins with a core structure consisting of PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ), ...

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Structural basis of collagen fiber degradation by cathepsin K [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Adeleke H. Aguda; Preety Panwar; Xin Du; Nham T. Nguyen; Gary D. Brayer; Dieter Brömme, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Cathepsin K is the major collagenolytic protease in bone that facilitates physiological as well as pathological bone degradation. Despite its key role in bone remodeling and for being a highly sought-after drug target for the treatment of osteoporosis, the mechanism of collagen fiber degradation ...

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Increased subtlety of transcription factor binding increases complexity of genome regulation [Biochemistry]

09.12.2014 | Peter H. von Hippel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In PNAS, Afek et al. (1) show that the specific (or “consensus”) base-pair sequences of a regulatory DNA target are not solely responsible for controlling the binding affinities of several eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) for their DNA target sites. Rather, so-called “nonconsensus” ...

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