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792 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Species formation by host shifting in avian malaria parasites [Evolution]

14.10.2014 | Robert E. Ricklefs; Diana C. Outlaw; Maria Svensson-Coelho; Matthew C. I. Medeiros; Vincenzo A. Ellis; Steven Latta, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida) of birds are believed to have diversified across the avian host phylogeny well after the origin of most major host lineages. Although many symbionts with direct transmission codiversify with their hosts, mechanisms of species formation in ...

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Shigella IpaH7.8 E3 ubiquitin ligase targets glomulin and activates inflammasomes to demolish macrophages [Microbiology]

07.10.2014 | Shiho Suzuki; Hitomi Mimuro; Minsoo Kim; Michinaga Ogawa; Hiroshi Ashida; Takahito Toyotome; Luigi Franchi; Masato S ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

When nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors (NLRs) sense cytosolic-invading bacteria, they induce the formation of inflammasomes and initiate an innate immune response. In quiescent cells, inflammasome activity is tightly regulated to prevent excess inflammation and cell death. ...

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Dominance of misfolded intermediates in the dynamics of {alpha}-helix folding [Physics]

07.10.2014 | Milo M. Lin; Dmitry Shorokhov; Ahmed H. Zewail, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Helices are the “hydrogen atoms” of biomolecular complexity; the DNA/RNA double hairpin and protein α-helix ubiquitously form the building blocks of life’s constituents at the nanometer scale. Nevertheless, the formation processes of these structures, especially the dynamical pathways and rates, ...

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Platelet mechanosensing of substrate stiffness during clot formation mediates adhesion, spreading, and activation [Applied Physical Sciences]

07.10.2014 | Yongzhi Qiu; Ashley C. Brown; David R. Myers; Yumiko Sakurai; Robert G. Mannino; Reginald Tran; Byungwook Ahn; Elais ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

As platelets aggregate and activate at the site of vascular injury to stem bleeding, they are subjected to a myriad of biochemical and biophysical signals and cues. As clot formation ensues, platelets interact with polymerizing fibrin scaffolds, exposing platelets to a large range of mechanical ...

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Involvement of the host DNA-repair enzyme TDP2 in formation of the covalently closed circular DNA persistence reservoir of hepatitis B viruses [Microbiology]

07.10.2014 | Christian Königer; Ida Wingert; Moritz Marsmann; Christine Rösler; Jürgen Beck; Michael Nassal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the causative agent of chronic hepatitis B and prototypic hepadnavirus, is a small DNA virus that replicates by protein-primed reverse transcription. The product is a 3-kb relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) in which one strand is linked to the viral polymerase (P protein) ...

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{alpha}-Synuclein assembles into higher-order multimers upon membrane binding to promote SNARE complex formation [Neuroscience]

07.10.2014 | Jacqueline Burré; Manu Sharma; Thomas C. Südhof, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Physiologically, α-synuclein chaperones soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly and may also perform other functions; pathologically, in contrast, α-synuclein misfolds into neurotoxic aggregates that mediate neurodegeneration and propagate between neurons. In neurons, ...

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Assembly and molecular order of two-dimensional peptoid nanosheets through the oil-water interface [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

16.09.2014 | Ellen J. Robertson; Gloria K. Oliver; Menglu Qian; Caroline Proulx; Ronald N. Zuckermann; Geraldine L. Richmond, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Peptoid nanosheets are a recently discovered class of 2D nanomaterial that form from the self-assembly of a sequence-specific peptoid polymer at an air–water interface. Nanosheet formation occurs first through the assembly of a peptoid monolayer and subsequent compression into a bilayer ...

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Crystal structure of the {gamma}-secretase component nicastrin [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

16.09.2014 | Tian Xie; Chuangye Yan; Rui Zhou; Yanyu Zhao; Linfeng Sun; Guanghui Yang; Peilong Lu; Dan Ma; Yigong Shi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

γ-Secretase is an intramembrane protease responsible for the generation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Aberrant accumulation of Aβ leads to the formation of amyloid plaques in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Nicastrin is the putative substrate-recruiting component of the γ-secretase ...

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Stat3 promotes IL-10 expression in lupus T cells through trans-activation and chromatin remodeling [Immunology and Inflammation]

16.09.2014 | Christian M. Hedrich; Thomas Rauen; Sokratis A. Apostolidis; Alexandros P. Grammatikos; Noe Rodriguez Rodriguez; Chr ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The immune-regulatory cytokine IL-10 plays a central role during innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-10 is elevated in the serum and tissues of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibody production, immune-complex formation, and ...

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Direct single-molecule observation of calcium-dependent misfolding in human neuronal calcium sensor-1 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09.09.2014 | Pétur O. Heidarsson; Mohsin M. Naqvi; Mariela R. Otazo; Alessandro Mossa; Birthe B. Kragelund; Ciro Cecconi, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Neurodegenerative disorders are strongly linked to protein misfolding, and crucial to their explication is a detailed understanding of the underlying structural rearrangements and pathways that govern the formation of misfolded states. Here we use single-molecule optical tweezers to monitor ...

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