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813 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Elucidating severe urban haze formation in China [Environmental Sciences]

09.12.2014 | Song Guo; Min Hu; Misti L. Zamora; Jianfei Peng; Dongjie Shang; Jing Zheng; Zhuofei Du; Zhijun Wu; Min Shao; Limin Z ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

As the world’s second largest economy, China has experienced severe haze pollution, with fine particulate matter (PM) recently reaching unprecedentedly high levels across many cities, and an understanding of the PM formation mechanism is critical in the development of efficient mediation policies ...

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Modulation of DNA loop lifetimes by the free energy of loop formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09.12.2014 | Yi-Ju Chen; Stephanie Johnson; Peter Mulligan; Andrew J. Spakowitz; Rob Phillips, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Storage and retrieval of the genetic information in cells is a dynamic process that requires the DNA to undergo dramatic structural rearrangements. DNA looping is a prominent example of such a structural rearrangement that is essential for transcriptional regulation in both prokaryotes and ...

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Direct observation of prefreezing at the interface melt-solid in polymer crystallization [Applied Physical Sciences]

09.12.2014 | Ann-Kristin Löhmann; Thomas Henze; Thomas Thurn-Albrecht, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Crystallization is almost always initiated at an interface to a solid. This observation is classically explained by the assumption of a reduced barrier for crystal nucleation at the interface. However, an interface can also induce crystallization by prefreezing (i.e., the formation of a ...

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Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and motility by fibroblasts is both contact and soluble factor dependent [Cell Biology]

02.12.2014 | Twana Alkasalias; Emilie Flaberg; Vladimir Kashuba; Andrey Alexeyenko; Tatiana Pavlova; Andrii Savchenko; Laszlo Sze ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Normal human and murine fibroblasts can inhibit proliferation of tumor cells when cocultured in vitro. The inhibitory capacity varies depending on the donor and the site of origin of the fibroblast. We showed previously that effective inhibition requires formation of a morphologically intact ...

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Fibroblasts probe substrate rigidity with filopodia extensions before occupying an area [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

02.12.2014 | Stephanie Wong; Wei-Hui Guo; Yu-Li Wang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Rigidity sensing and durotaxis are thought to be important elements in wound healing, tissue formation, and cancer treatment. It has been challenging, however, to study the underlying mechanism due to difficulties in capturing cells during the transient response to a rigidity interface. We have ...

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Mapping the unconscious maintenance of a lost first language [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

02.12.2014 | Lara J. Pierce; Denise Klein; Jen-Kai Chen; Audrey Delcenserie; Fred Genesee, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Optimal periods during early development facilitate the formation of perceptual representations, laying the framework for future learning. A crucial question is whether such early representations are maintained in the brain over time without continued input. Using functional MRI, we show that ...

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Instability-induced pattern formation of photoactivated functional polymers [Applied Physical Sciences]

02.12.2014 | Henning Galinski; Antonio Ambrosio; Pasqualino Maddalena; Iwan Schenker; Ralph Spolenak; Federico Capasso, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Since the pioneering work of Turing on the formation principles of animal coat patterns [Turing AM (1952) Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 237(641):37–72], such as the stripes of a tiger, great effort has been made to understand and explain various phenomena of self-assembly and pattern formation. ...

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Synaptonemal complex extension from clustered telomeres mediates full-length chromosome pairing in Schmidtea mediterranea [Genetics]

02.12.2014 | Youbin Xiang; Danny E. Miller; Eric J. Ross; Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado; R. Scott Hawley, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

In the 1920s, József Gelei proposed that chromosome pairing in flatworms resulted from the formation of a telomere bouquet followed by the extension of synapsis from telomeres at the base of the bouquet, thus facilitating homolog pairing in a processive manner. A modern interpretation of Gelei’s ...

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Nonsensory target-dependent organization of piriform cortex [Neuroscience]

25.11.2014 | Chien-Fu F. Chen; Dong-Jing Zou; Clara G. Altomare; Lu Xu; Charles A. Greer; Stuart J. Firestein, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

The piriform cortex (PCX) is the largest component of the olfactory cortex and is hypothesized to be the locus of odor object formation. The distributed odorant representation found in PCX contrasts sharply with the topographical representation seen in other primary sensory cortices, making it ...

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Lethal coalitionary aggression and long-term alliance formation among Yanomamo men [Anthropology]

25.11.2014 | Shane J. Macfarlan; Robert S. Walker; Mark V. Flinn; Napoleon A. Chagnon, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Some cross-cultural evidence suggests lethal coalitionary aggression in humans is the product of residence and descent rules that promote fraternal interest groups, i.e., power groups of coresident males bonded by kinship. As such, human lethal coalitions are hypothesized to be homologous to ...

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