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861 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Cis and trans interactions between atlastin molecules during membrane fusion [Cell Biology]

14.04.2015 | Tina Y. Liu; Xin Bian; Fabian B. Romano; Tom Shemesh; Tom A. Rapoport; Junjie Hu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Atlastin (ATL), a membrane-anchored GTPase that mediates homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, is required for formation of the tubular network of the peripheral ER. How exactly ATL mediates membrane fusion is only poorly understood. Here we show that fusion is preceded by the ...

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SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes function in noncoding RNA-dependent assembly of nuclear bodies [Biochemistry]

07.04.2015 | Tetsuya Kawaguchi; Akie Tanigawa; Takao Naganuma; Yasuyuki Ohkawa; Sylvie Souquere; Gerard Pierron; Tetsuro Hirose, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Paraspeckles are subnuclear structures that form around nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Recently, paraspeckles were shown to be functional nuclear bodies involved in stress responses and the development of specific organs. Paraspeckle formation is ...

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New aspect of plant-rhizobia interaction: Alkaloid biosynthesis in Crotalaria depends on nodulation [Plant Biology]

31.03.2015 | Simon Irmer; Nora Podzun; Dorothee Langel; Franziska Heidemann; Elisabeth Kaltenegger; Brigitte Schemmerling; Christ ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Infection of legume hosts by rhizobial bacteria results in the formation of a specialized organ, the nodule, in which atmospheric nitrogen is reduced to ammonia. Nodulation requires the reprogramming of the plant cell, allowing the microsymbiont to enter the plant tissue in a highly controlled ...

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ATM prevents DSB formation by coordinating SSB repair and cell cycle progression [Cell Biology]

31.03.2015 | Svetlana V. Khoronenkova; Grigory L. Dianov, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) arise as a consequence of spontaneous DNA instability and are also formed as DNA repair intermediates. Their repair is critical because they otherwise terminate gene transcription and generate toxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) on replication. To prevent the ...

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Two transcription factors, Pou4f2 and Isl1, are sufficient to specify the retinal ganglion cell fate [Developmental Biology]

31.03.2015 | Fuguo Wu; Tadeusz J. Kaczynski; Santhosh Sethuramanujam; Renzhong Li; Varsha Jain; Malcolm Slaughter; Xiuqian Mu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

As with other retinal cell types, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) arise from multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs), and their formation is regulated by a hierarchical gene-regulatory network (GRN). Within this GRN, three transcription factors—atonal homolog 7 (Atoh7), POU domain, class 4, ...

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Dysfunctional conformational dynamics of protein kinase A induced by a lethal mutant of phospholamban hinder phosphorylation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

24.03.2015 | Jonggul Kim; Larry R. Masterson; Alessandro Cembran; Raffaello Verardi; Lei Shi; Jiali Gao; Susan S. Taylor; Gianlui ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The dynamic interplay between kinases and substrates is crucial for the formation of catalytically committed complexes that enable phosphoryl transfer. However, a clear understanding on how substrates modulate kinase structural dynamics to control catalytic efficiency is still missing. Here, we ...

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Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

24.03.2015 | Shuichang Zhang; Xiaomei Wang; Emma U. Hammarlund; Huajian Wang; M. Mafalda Costa; Christian J. Bjerrum; James N. Co ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the ...

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Lrp4 in osteoblasts suppresses bone formation and promotes osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption [Medical Sciences]

17.03.2015 | Lei Xiong; Ji-Ung Jung; Haitao Wu; Wen-Fang Xia; Jin-Xiu Pan; Chengyong Shen; Lin Mei; Wen-Cheng Xiong, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Bone mass is maintained by balanced activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Lrp4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4) is a member of the LDL receptor family, whose mutations have been identified in patients with high–bone-mass disorders, such as sclerosteosis and van Buchem ...

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Up-regulation of lysosomal TRPML1 channels is essential for lysosomal adaptation to nutrient starvation [Neuroscience]

17.03.2015 | Wuyang Wang; Qiong Gao; Meimei Yang; Xiaoli Zhang; Lu Yu; Maria Lawas; Xinran Li; Marthe Bryant-Genevier; Noel T. So ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Upon nutrient starvation, autophagy digests unwanted cellular components to generate catabolites that are required for housekeeping biosynthesis processes. A complete execution of autophagy demands an enhancement in lysosome function and biogenesis to match the increase in autophagosome ...

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Sequential de novo centromere formation and inactivation on a chromosomal fragment in maize [Genetics]

17.03.2015 | Yalin Liu; Handong Su; Junling Pang; Zhi Gao; Xiu-Jie Wang; James A. Birchler; Fangpu Han, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The ability of centromeres to alternate between active and inactive states indicates significant epigenetic aspects controlling centromere assembly and function. In maize (Zea mays), misdivision of the B chromosome centromere on a translocation with the short arm of chromosome 9 (TB-9Sb) can ...

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