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964 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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A dynamic Asp-Arg interaction is essential for catalysis in microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase [Biochemistry]

26.01.2016 | Joseph S. Brock; Mats Hamberg; Navisraj Balagunaseelan; Michael Goodman; Ralf Morgenstern; Emilia Strandback; Bengt ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase type 1 (mPGES-1) is responsible for the formation of the potent lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 under proinflammatory conditions, and this enzyme has received considerable attention as a drug target. Recently, a high-resolution crystal structure of human ...

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Long-term clinical study and multiscale analysis of in vivo biodegradation mechanism of Mg alloy [Medical Sciences]

19.01.2016 | Jee-Wook Lee; Hyung-Seop Han; Kyeong-Jin Han; Jimin Park; Hojeong Jeon; Myoung-Ryul Ok; Hyun-Kwang Seok; Jae-Pyoung ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

There has been a tremendous amount of research in the past decade to optimize the mechanical properties and degradation behavior of the biodegradable Mg alloy for orthopedic implant. Despite the feasibility of degrading implant, the lack of fundamental understanding about biocompatibility and ...

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Micronucleus formation causes perpetual unilateral chromosome inheritance in mouse embryos [Cell Biology]

19.01.2016 | Cayetana Vázquez-Diez; Kazuo Yamagata; Shardul Trivedi; Jenna Haverfield; Greg FitzHarris, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Chromosome segregation defects in cancer cells lead to encapsulation of chromosomes in micronuclei (MN), small nucleus-like structures within which dangerous DNA rearrangements termed chromothripsis can occur. Here we uncover a strikingly different consequence of MN formation in preimplantation ...

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Inhibition of Hif1{alpha} prevents both trauma-induced and genetic heterotopic ossification [Medical Sciences]

19.01.2016 | Shailesh Agarwal; Shawn Loder; Cameron Brownley; David Cholok; Laura Mangiavini; John Li; Christopher Breuler; Hsiao ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Pathologic extraskeletal bone formation, or heterotopic ossification (HO), occurs following mechanical trauma, burns, orthopedic operations, and in patients with hyperactivating mutations of the type I bone morphogenetic protein receptor ACVR1 (Activin type 1 receptor). Extraskeletal bone forms ...

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SDPR functions as a metastasis suppressor in breast cancer by promoting apoptosis [Cell Biology]

19.01.2016 | Sait Ozturk; Panagiotis Papageorgis; Chen Khuan Wong; Arthur W. Lambert; Hamid M. Abdolmaleky; Arunthathi Thiagaling ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Metastatic dissemination of breast cancer cells represents a significant clinical obstacle to curative therapy. The loss of function of metastasis suppressor genes is a major rate-limiting step in breast cancer progression that prevents the formation of new colonies at distal sites. However, the ...

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Geometry-induced protein pattern formation [Physics]

19.01.2016 | Dominik Thalmeier; Jacob Halatek; Erwin Frey, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Protein patterns are known to adapt to cell shape and serve as spatial templates that choreograph downstream processes like cell polarity or cell division. However, how can pattern-forming proteins sense and respond to the geometry of a cell, and what mechanistic principles underlie pattern ...

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Structure determination of helical filaments by solid-state NMR spectroscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

19.01.2016 | Lichun He; Benjamin Bardiaux; Mumdooh Ahmed; Johannes Spehr; Renate König; Heinrich Lünsdorf; Ulfert Rand; Thorsten ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The controlled formation of filamentous protein complexes plays a crucial role in many biological systems and represents an emerging paradigm in signal transduction. The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a central signal transduction hub in innate immunity that is activated by a ...

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Extracardiac septum transversum/proepicardial endothelial cells pattern embryonic coronary arterio-venous connections [Developmental Biology]

19.01.2016 | Elena Cano; Rita Carmona; Adrián Ruiz-Villalba; Anabel Rojas; You-Ying Chau; Kay D. Wagner; Nicole Wagner; Nicholas ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Recent reports suggest that mammalian embryonic coronary endothelium (CoE) originates from the sinus venosus and ventricular endocardium. However, the contribution of extracardiac cells to CoE is thought to be minor and nonsignificant for coronary formation. Using classic (Wt1Cre) and previously ...

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Zinc-dependent mechanical properties of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-forming surface protein SasG [Microbiology]

12.01.2016 | Cécile Formosa-Dague; Pietro Speziale; Timothy J. Foster; Joan A. Geoghegan; Yves F. Dufrêne, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Staphylococcus aureus surface protein SasG promotes cell–cell adhesion during the accumulation phase of biofilm formation, but the molecular basis of this interaction remains poorly understood. Here, we unravel the mechanical properties of SasG on the surface of living bacteria, that is, in its ...

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Functions of vasopressin and oxytocin in bone mass regulation [Medical Sciences]

05.01.2016 | Li Sun; Roberto Tamma; Tony Yuen; Graziana Colaianni; Yaoting Ji; Concetta Cuscito; Jack Bailey; Samarth Dhawan; Pin ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Prior studies show that oxytocin (Oxt) and vasopressin (Avp) have opposing actions on the skeleton exerted through high-affinity G protein-coupled receptors. We explored whether Avp and Oxtr can share their receptors in the regulation of bone formation by osteoblasts. We show that the Avp ...

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