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985 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Resolving the HONO formation mechanism in the ionosphere via ab initio molecular dynamic simulations [Chemistry]

26.04.2016 | Rongxing He; Lei Li; Jie Zhong; Chongqin Zhu; Joseph S. Francisco; Xiao Cheng Zeng, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Solar emission produces copious nitrosonium ions (NO+) in the D layer of the ionosphere, 60 to 90 km above the Earth’s surface. NO+ is believed to transfer its charge to water clusters in that region, leading to the formation of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and protonated water cluster. The ...

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Proteus mirabilis fimbriae- and urease-dependent clusters assemble in an extracellular niche to initiate bladder stone formation [Microbiology]

19.04.2016 | Jessica N. Schaffer; Allison N. Norsworthy; Tung-Tien Sun; Melanie M. Pearson, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The catheter-associated uropathogen Proteus mirabilis frequently causes urinary stones, but little has been known about the initial stages of bladder colonization and stone formation. We found that P. mirabilis rapidly invades the bladder urothelium, but generally fails to establish an ...

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Inhibition of translation initiation complex formation by GE81112 unravels a 16S rRNA structural switch involved in P-site decoding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

19.04.2016 | Attilio Fabbretti; Andreas Schedlbauer; Letizia Brandi; Tatsuya Kaminishi; Anna Maria Giuliodori; Raffaella Garofalo ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

In prokaryotic systems, the initiation phase of protein synthesis is governed by the presence of initiation factors that guide the transition of the small ribosomal subunit (30S) from an unlocked preinitiation complex (30S preIC) to a locked initiation complex (30SIC) upon the formation of a ...

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Ancestral genetic diversity associated with the rapid spread of stress-tolerant coral symbionts in response to Holocene climate change [Evolution]

19.04.2016 | Benjamin C. C. Hume; Christian R. Voolstra; Chatchanit Arif; Cecilia D’Angelo; John A. Burt; Gal Eyal; Yossi Loya; J ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Coral communities in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) withstand unusually high salinity levels and regular summer temperature maxima of up to ∼35 °C that kill conspecifics elsewhere. Due to the recent formation of the PAG and its subsequent shift to a hot climate, these corals have had ...

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Turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma [Astronomy]

12.04.2016 | François Rincon; Francesco Califano; Alexander A. Schekochihin; Francesco Valentini, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Magnetic fields pervade the entire universe and affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. The generation and dynamical amplification of extragalactic magnetic fields through cosmic times (up to microgauss levels reported in nearby galaxy ...

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News Feature: The Mars anomaly [News Feature]

05.04.2016 | Stephen Ornes, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

The red planet’s size is at the heart of a rift of ideas among researchers modeling the solar system’s formation. The presence of water isn’t the only Mars mystery scientists are keen to probe. Another centers around a seemingly trivial characteristic of the Red Planet: its size. Classic models ...

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

29.03.2016 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Self-organization of fairy circles Fairy circle in the Western Australian outback. Fairy circles are circular patches of bare soil in grasslands that form a uniform hexagonal pattern. Pattern-formation theory predicts that feedback between vegetation growth and water transport leads grasslands to ...

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BRCA2 regulates DMC1-mediated recombination through the BRC repeats [Biochemistry]

29.03.2016 | Juan S. Martinez; Catharina von Nicolai; Taeho Kim; Åsa Ehlén; Alexander V. Mazin; Stephen C. Kowalczykowski; Aura C ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

In somatic cells, BRCA2 is needed for RAD51-mediated homologous recombination. The meiosis-specific DNA strand exchange protein, DMC1, promotes the formation of DNA strand invasion products (joint molecules) between homologous molecules in a fashion similar to RAD51. BRCA2 interacts directly with ...

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Neuronal profilins in health and disease: Relevance for spine plasticity and Fragile X syndrome [Neuroscience]

22.03.2016 | Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse; Sabine Zessin; Gayane Grigoryan; Franziska Scharkowski; Jonas Feuge; Anita Remus; Martin ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Learning and memory, to a large extent, depend on functional changes at synapses. Actin dynamics orchestrate the formation of synapses, as well as their stabilization, and the ability to undergo plastic changes. Hence, profilins are of key interest as they bind to G-actin and enhance actin ...

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Kinesin-12 motors cooperate to suppress microtubule catastrophes and drive the formation of parallel microtubule bundles [Biochemistry]

22.03.2016 | Hauke Drechsler; Andrew D. McAinsh, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2016

Human Kinesin-12 (hKif15) plays a crucial role in assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. These functions of hKif15 are partially redundant with Kinesin-5 (Eg5), which can cross-link and drive the extensile sliding of antiparallel microtubules. Although both motors are known to be ...

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