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820 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Nucleoporin MOS7/Nup88 is required for mitosis in gametogenesis and seed development in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

23.12.2014 | Guen Tae Park; Jennifer M. Frost; Jin-Sup Park; Tae Ho Kim; Jong Seob Lee; Sung Aeong Oh; David Twell; Janie Sue Bro ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Angiosperm reproduction is characterized by alternate diploid sporophytic and haploid gametophytic generations. Gametogenesis shares similarities with that of animals except for the formation of the gametophyte, whereby haploid cells undergo several rounds of postmeiotic mitosis to form gametes ...

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In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]

16.12.2014 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Thermodynamics of nuclear waste in water The long-term stability and fate of radioactive uranium oxides depend in part on the mineral phase containing the uranium, because some mineral phases degrade and dissolve more readily than others. Xiaofeng Guo et al. (pp. 17737–17742) investigated the ...

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Constitutively active Notch4 receptor elicits brain arteriovenous malformations through enlargement of capillary-like vessels [Medical Sciences]

16.12.2014 | Patrick A. Murphy; Tyson N. Kim; Lawrence Huang; Corinne M. Nielsen; Michael T. Lawton; Ralf H. Adams; Chris B. Scha ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Arteriovenous (AV) malformation (AVM) is a devastating condition characterized by focal lesions of enlarged, tangled vessels that shunt blood from arteries directly to veins. AVMs can form anywhere in the body and can cause debilitating ischemia and life-threatening hemorrhagic stroke. The ...

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Crucial role of nonspecific interactions in amyloid nucleation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

16.12.2014 | Anđela Šarić; Yassmine C. Chebaro; Tuomas P. J. Knowles; Daan Frenkel, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Protein oligomers have been implicated as toxic agents in a wide range of amyloid-related diseases. However, it has remained unsolved whether the oligomers are a necessary step in the formation of amyloid fibrils or just a dangerous byproduct. Analogously, it has not been resolved if the amyloid ...

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Structure of the nonameric bacterial amyloid secretion channel [Microbiology]

16.12.2014 | Baohua Cao; Yan Zhao; Yongjun Kou; Dongchun Ni; Xuejun Cai Zhang; Yihua Huang, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Various strains of bacteria are able to produce a unique class of functional amyloids termed curli, which are critical for biofilm formation, host cell adhesion, and colonization of inert surfaces. Curli are secreted via the type VIII bacterial secretion system, and they share biochemical and ...

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Sphericity and symmetry breaking in the formation of Frank-Kasper phases from one component materials [Physics]

16.12.2014 | Sangwoo Lee; Chris Leighton; Frank S. Bates, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Frank–Kasper phases are tetrahedrally packed structures occurring in numerous materials, from elements to intermetallics to self-assembled soft materials. They exhibit complex manifolds of Wigner–Seitz cells with many-faceted polyhedra, forming an important bridge between the simple close-packed ...

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Energetics of metastudtite and implications for nuclear waste alteration [Chemistry]

16.12.2014 | Xiaofeng Guo; Sergey V. Ushakov; Sabrina Labs; Hildegard Curtius; Dirk Bosbach; Alexandra Navrotsky, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Metastudtite, (UO2)O2(H2O)2, is one of two known natural peroxide minerals, but little is established about its thermodynamic stability. In this work, its standard enthalpy of formation, −1,779.6 ± 1.9 kJ/mol, was obtained by high temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry. Decomposition of ...

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Elucidating severe urban haze formation in China [Environmental Sciences]

09.12.2014 | Song Guo; Min Hu; Misti L. Zamora; Jianfei Peng; Dongjie Shang; Jing Zheng; Zhuofei Du; Zhijun Wu; Min Shao; Limin Z ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

As the world’s second largest economy, China has experienced severe haze pollution, with fine particulate matter (PM) recently reaching unprecedentedly high levels across many cities, and an understanding of the PM formation mechanism is critical in the development of efficient mediation policies ...

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Modulation of DNA loop lifetimes by the free energy of loop formation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]

09.12.2014 | Yi-Ju Chen; Stephanie Johnson; Peter Mulligan; Andrew J. Spakowitz; Rob Phillips, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Storage and retrieval of the genetic information in cells is a dynamic process that requires the DNA to undergo dramatic structural rearrangements. DNA looping is a prominent example of such a structural rearrangement that is essential for transcriptional regulation in both prokaryotes and ...

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Direct observation of prefreezing at the interface melt-solid in polymer crystallization [Applied Physical Sciences]

09.12.2014 | Ann-Kristin Löhmann; Thomas Henze; Thomas Thurn-Albrecht, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2014

Crystallization is almost always initiated at an interface to a solid. This observation is classically explained by the assumption of a reduced barrier for crystal nucleation at the interface. However, an interface can also induce crystallization by prefreezing (i.e., the formation of a ...

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