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17.728 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Anomalous scaling law of strength and toughness of cellulose nanopaper [Engineering]

21.07.2015 | Hongli Zhu; Shuze Zhu; Zheng Jia; Sepideh Parvinian; Yuanyuan Li; Oeyvind Vaaland; Liangbing Hu; Teng Li, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The quest for both strength and toughness is perpetual in advanced material design; unfortunately, these two mechanical properties are generally mutually exclusive. So far there exists only limited success of attaining both strength and toughness, which often needs material-specific, complicated, ...

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Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa [Environmental Sciences]

21.07.2015 | Adam M. Wilson; Andrew M. Latimer; John A. Silander Jr., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to ...

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Randomization and resilience of brain functional networks as systems-level endophenotypes of schizophrenia [Neuroscience]

21.07.2015 | Chun-Yi Zac Lo; Tsung-Wei Su; Chu-Chung Huang; Chia-Chun Hung; Wei-Ling Chen; Tsuo-Hung Lan; Ching-Po Lin; Edward T. ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Schizophrenia is increasingly conceived as a disorder of brain network organization or dysconnectivity syndrome. Functional MRI (fMRI) networks in schizophrenia have been characterized by abnormally random topology. We tested the hypothesis that network randomization is an endophenotype of ...

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Rapid and widespread de novo evolution of kin discrimination [Evolution]

21.07.2015 | Olaya Rendueles; Peter C. Zee; Iris Dinkelacker; Michaela Amherd; Sébastien Wielgoss; Gregory J. Velicer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Diverse forms of kin discrimination, broadly defined as alteration of social behavior as a function of genetic relatedness among interactants, are common among social organisms from microbes to humans. However, the evolutionary origins and causes of kin-discriminatory behavior remain largely ...

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Clonality and intracellular polyploidy in virus evolution and pathogenesis [Colloquium Paper]

21.07.2015 | Celia Perales; Elena Moreno; Esteban Domingo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In the present article we examine clonality in virus evolution. Most viruses retain an active recombination machinery as a potential means to initiate new levels of genetic exploration that go beyond those attainable solely by point mutations. However, despite abundant recombination that may be ...

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Conserved regulatory mechanism controls the development of cells with rooting functions in land plants [Plant Biology]

21.07.2015 | Thomas Ho Yuen Tam; Bruno Catarino; Liam Dolan, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Land plants develop filamentous cells—root hairs, rhizoids, and caulonemata—at the interface with the soil. Members of the group XI basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors encoded by LOTUS JAPONICUS ROOTHAIRLESS1-LIKE (LRL) genes positively regulate the development of root hairs in ...

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Reply to Baires et al.: Shifts in Mississippi River flood regime remain a contributing factor to Cahokia's emergence and decline [Physical Sciences]

21.07.2015 | Samuel E. Munoz; Kristine E. Gruley; David A. Fike; Sissel Schroeder; John W. Williams, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Baires et al. (1) critique two aspects of our study (2): (i) whether a large flood event “caused the collapse of the largest Pre-Columbian city north of Mexico,” and (ii) the timing of one flood event (Flood Event V), which we reported to have a 95% confidence interval of A.D....

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Reanalysis of parabiosis of obesity mutants in the age of leptin [Genetics]

21.07.2015 | Wenwen Zeng; Yi-Hsueh Lu; Jonah Lee; Jeffrey M. Friedman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In this study we set out to explain the differing effects of parabiosis with genetically diabetic (db) mice versus administration of recombinant leptin. Parabiosis of db mutant, which overexpress leptin, to wildtype (WT) or genetically obese (ob) mice has been reported to cause death by ...

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Measuring selective constraint on fertility in human life histories [Population Biology]

21.07.2015 | James Holland Jones; Shripad Tuljapurkar, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Human life histories combine late age at first reproduction, long reproductive span, relatively high fertility, and substantial postreproductive survival. However, even among the most fecund populations, human fertility falls far below its theoretical maximum. The extent of parental care required ...

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Adolescent impatience decreases with increased frontostriatal connectivity [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]

21.07.2015 | Wouter van den Bos; Christian A. Rodriguez; Julie B. Schweitzer; Samuel M. McClure, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Adolescence is a developmental period associated with an increase in impulsivity. Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, and in this study we focus on one of the underlying components: impatience. Impatience can result from (i) disregard of future outcomes and/or (ii) oversensitivity to ...

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