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16.625 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Metallic lead nanospheres discovered in ancient zircons [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

21.04.2015 | Monika A. Kusiak; Daniel J. Dunkley; Richard Wirth; Martin J. Whitehouse; Simon A. Wilde; Katharina Marquardt, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Zircon (ZrSiO4) is the most commonly used geochronometer, preserving age and geochemical information through a wide range of geological processes. However, zircon U–Pb geochronology can be affected by redistribution of radiogenic Pb, which is incompatible in the crystal structure. This phenomenon ...

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Biology in the Anthropocene: Challenges and insights from young fossil records [Biological Sciences]

21.04.2015 | Susan M. Kidwell, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

With overwhelming evidence of change in habitats, biologists today must assume that few, if any, study areas are natural and that biological variability is superimposed on trends rather than stationary means. Paleobiological data from the youngest sedimentary record, including death assemblages ...

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In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging [Medical Sciences]

21.04.2015 | Jorge R. Barrio; Gary W. Small; Koon-Pong Wong; Sung-Cheng Huang; Jie Liu; David A. Merrill; Christopher C. Giza; Ro ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition ...

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Ideal probe single-molecule experiments reveal the intrinsic dynamic heterogeneity of a supercooled liquid [Chemistry]

21.04.2015 | Keewook Paeng; Heungman Park; Dat Tien Hoang; Laura J. Kaufman, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The concept of dynamic heterogeneity and the picture of the supercooled liquid as a mosaic of environments with distinct dynamics that interchange in time have been invoked to explain the nonexponential relaxations measured in these systems. The spatial extent and temporal persistence of these ...

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Sleep- and wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and reactivity demonstrated in fly neurons using in vivo calcium imaging [Neuroscience]

14.04.2015 | Daniel Bushey; Giulio Tononi; Chiara Cirelli, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Sleep in Drosophila shares many features with mammalian sleep, but it remains unknown whether spontaneous and evoked activity of individual neurons change with the sleep/wake cycle in flies as they do in mammals. Here we used calcium imaging to assess how the Kenyon cells in the fly mushroom ...

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ATP binding to the pseudokinase domain of JAK2 is critical for pathogenic activation [Biochemistry]

14.04.2015 | Henrik M. Hammarén; Daniela Ungureanu; Jean Grisouard; Radek C. Skoda; Stevan R. Hubbard; Olli Silvennoinen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Pseudokinases lack conserved motifs typically required for kinase activity. Nearly half of pseudokinases bind ATP, but only few retain phosphotransfer activity, leaving the functional role of nucleotide binding in most cases unknown. Janus kinases (JAKs) are nonreceptor tyrosine kinases with a ...

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Sae2 promotes DNA damage resistance by removing the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex from DNA and attenuating Rad53 signaling [Genetics]

14.04.2015 | Huan Chen; Roberto A. Donnianni; Naofumi Handa; Sarah K. Deng; Julyun Oh; Leonid A. Timashev; Stephen C. Kowalczykow ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The Mre11–Rad50–Xrs2/NBS1 (MRX/N) nuclease/ATPase complex plays structural and catalytic roles in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is the DNA damage sensor for Tel1/ATM kinase activation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2 can function with MRX to initiate 5′-3′ end resection and also ...

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Eluding catastrophic shifts [Physics]

14.04.2015 | Paula Villa Martín; Juan A. Bonachela; Simon A. Levin; Miguel A. Muñoz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Transitions between regimes with radically different properties are ubiquitous in nature. Such transitions can occur either smoothly or in an abrupt and catastrophic fashion. Important examples of the latter can be found in ecology, climate sciences, and economics, to name a few, where regime ...

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Tectal microcircuit generating visual selection commands on gaze-controlling neurons [Neuroscience]

14.04.2015 | Andreas A. Kardamakis; Kazuya Saitoh; Sten Grillner, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The optic tectum (called superior colliculus in mammals) is critical for eye–head gaze shifts as we navigate in the terrain and need to adapt our movements to the visual scene. The neuronal mechanisms underlying the tectal contribution to stimulus selection and gaze reorientation remains, ...

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Extreme rainfall activity in the Australian tropics reflects changes in the El Nino/Southern Oscillation over the last two millennia [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

14.04.2015 | Rhawn F. Denniston; Gabriele Villarini; Angelique N. Gonzales; Karl-Heinz Wyrwoll; Victor J. Polyak; Caroline C. Umm ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Assessing temporal variability in extreme rainfall events before the historical era is complicated by the sparsity of long-term “direct” storm proxies. Here we present a 2,200-y-long, accurate, and precisely dated record of cave flooding events from the northwest Australian tropics that we ...

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