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17.256 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Sleep- and wake-dependent changes in neuronal activity and reactivity demonstrated in fly neurons using in vivo calcium imaging [Neuroscience]

14.04.2015 | Daniel Bushey; Giulio Tononi; Chiara Cirelli, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Sleep in Drosophila shares many features with mammalian sleep, but it remains unknown whether spontaneous and evoked activity of individual neurons change with the sleep/wake cycle in flies as they do in mammals. Here we used calcium imaging to assess how the Kenyon cells in the fly mushroom ...

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ATP binding to the pseudokinase domain of JAK2 is critical for pathogenic activation [Biochemistry]

14.04.2015 | Henrik M. Hammarén; Daniela Ungureanu; Jean Grisouard; Radek C. Skoda; Stevan R. Hubbard; Olli Silvennoinen, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Pseudokinases lack conserved motifs typically required for kinase activity. Nearly half of pseudokinases bind ATP, but only few retain phosphotransfer activity, leaving the functional role of nucleotide binding in most cases unknown. Janus kinases (JAKs) are nonreceptor tyrosine kinases with a ...

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Sae2 promotes DNA damage resistance by removing the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex from DNA and attenuating Rad53 signaling [Genetics]

14.04.2015 | Huan Chen; Roberto A. Donnianni; Naofumi Handa; Sarah K. Deng; Julyun Oh; Leonid A. Timashev; Stephen C. Kowalczykow ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The Mre11–Rad50–Xrs2/NBS1 (MRX/N) nuclease/ATPase complex plays structural and catalytic roles in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is the DNA damage sensor for Tel1/ATM kinase activation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2 can function with MRX to initiate 5′-3′ end resection and also ...

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Eluding catastrophic shifts [Physics]

14.04.2015 | Paula Villa Martín; Juan A. Bonachela; Simon A. Levin; Miguel A. Muñoz, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Transitions between regimes with radically different properties are ubiquitous in nature. Such transitions can occur either smoothly or in an abrupt and catastrophic fashion. Important examples of the latter can be found in ecology, climate sciences, and economics, to name a few, where regime ...

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Tectal microcircuit generating visual selection commands on gaze-controlling neurons [Neuroscience]

14.04.2015 | Andreas A. Kardamakis; Kazuya Saitoh; Sten Grillner, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The optic tectum (called superior colliculus in mammals) is critical for eye–head gaze shifts as we navigate in the terrain and need to adapt our movements to the visual scene. The neuronal mechanisms underlying the tectal contribution to stimulus selection and gaze reorientation remains, ...

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Extreme rainfall activity in the Australian tropics reflects changes in the El Nino/Southern Oscillation over the last two millennia [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]

14.04.2015 | Rhawn F. Denniston; Gabriele Villarini; Angelique N. Gonzales; Karl-Heinz Wyrwoll; Victor J. Polyak; Caroline C. Umm ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Assessing temporal variability in extreme rainfall events before the historical era is complicated by the sparsity of long-term “direct” storm proxies. Here we present a 2,200-y-long, accurate, and precisely dated record of cave flooding events from the northwest Australian tropics that we ...

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Tryptophan-independent auxin biosynthesis contributes to early embryogenesis in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]

14.04.2015 | Bing Wang; Jinfang Chu; Tianying Yu; Qian Xu; Xiaohong Sun; Jia Yuan; Guosheng Xiong; Guodong Wang; Yonghong Wang; J ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The phytohormone auxin regulates nearly all aspects of plant growth and development. Tremendous achievements have been made in elucidating the tryptophan (Trp)-dependent auxin biosynthetic pathway; however, the genetic evidence, key components, and functions of the Trp-independent pathway remain ...

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DNA-mediated engineering of multicomponent enzyme crystals [Chemistry]

14.04.2015 | Jeffrey D. Brodin; Evelyn Auyeung; Chad A. Mirkin, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The ability to predictably control the coassembly of multiple nanoscale building blocks, especially those with disparate chemical and physical properties such as biomolecules and inorganic nanoparticles, has far-reaching implications in catalysis, sensing, and photonics, but a generalizable ...

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Cis and trans interactions between atlastin molecules during membrane fusion [Cell Biology]

14.04.2015 | Tina Y. Liu; Xin Bian; Fabian B. Romano; Tom Shemesh; Tom A. Rapoport; Junjie Hu, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Atlastin (ATL), a membrane-anchored GTPase that mediates homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, is required for formation of the tubular network of the peripheral ER. How exactly ATL mediates membrane fusion is only poorly understood. Here we show that fusion is preceded by the ...

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Links that speak only some languages [Physical Sciences]

14.04.2015 | Ann J. Biersteker, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Ronen et al. (1) raise an intriguing question concerning how to define quantitatively “the global influence of languages.” Unfortunately, the limitations and flaws in their datasets raise questions concerning the validity of their maps of global language networks. UNESCO’s Index Translationum (2) ...

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