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18.834 Aktuelle Fachpublikationen von Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

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Key driving forces in the biosynthesis of autoinducing peptides required for staphylococcal virulence [Biochemistry]

25.08.2015 | Boyuan Wang; Aishan Zhao; Richard P. Novick; Tom W. Muir, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Staphylococci produce autoinducing peptides (AIPs) as quorum-sensing signals that regulate virulence. These AIPs feature a thiolactone macrocycle that connects the peptide C terminus to the side chain of an internal cysteine. AIPs are processed from ribosomally synthesized precursors [accessory ...

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Interference effects of choice on confidence: Quantum characteristics of evidence accumulation [Applied Mathematics]

25.08.2015 | Peter D. Kvam; Timothy J. Pleskac; Shuli Yu; Jerome R. Busemeyer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Decision-making relies on a process of evidence accumulation which generates support for possible hypotheses. Models of this process derived from classical stochastic theories assume that information accumulates by moving across definite levels of evidence, carving out a single trajectory across ...

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Giving behavior of millionaires [Economic Sciences]

25.08.2015 | Paul Smeets; Rob Bauer; Uri Gneezy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

This paper studies conditions influencing the generosity of wealthy people. We conduct incentivized experiments with individuals who have at least €1 million in their bank account. The results show that millionaires are more generous toward low-income individuals in a giving situation when the ...

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New model to explain tooth wear with implications for microwear formation and diet reconstruction [Anthropology]

25.08.2015 | Jing Xia; Jing Zheng; Diaodiao Huang; Z. Ryan Tian; Lei Chen; Zhongrong Zhou; Peter S. Ungar; Linmao Qian, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Paleoanthropologists and vertebrate paleontologists have for decades debated the etiology of tooth wear and its implications for understanding the diets of human ancestors and other extinct mammals. The debate has recently taken a twist, calling into question the efficacy of dental microwear to ...

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Production diversity and dietary diversity in smallholder farm households [Sustainability Science]

25.08.2015 | Kibrom T. Sibhatu; Vijesh V. Krishna; Matin Qaim, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition remain problems of significant magnitude in large parts of the developing world. Improved nutrition requires not only better access to food for poor population segments, but also higher dietary quality and diversity. Because many of the poor and ...

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STIM1 enhances SR Ca2+ content through binding phospholamban in rat ventricular myocytes [Physiology]

25.08.2015 | Guiling Zhao; Tianyu Li; Didier X. P. Brochet; Paul B. Rosenberg; W. J. Lederer, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

In ventricular myocytes, the physiological function of stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) Ca2+ sensor, is unclear with respect to its cellular localization, its Ca2+-dependent mobilization, and its action on Ca2+ signaling. Confocal microscopy was used ...

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Biologically active LIL proteins built with minimal chemical diversity [Biochemistry]

25.08.2015 | Erin N. Heim; Jez L. Marston; Ross S. Federman; Anne P. B. Edwards; Alexander G. Karabadzhak; Lisa M. Petti; Donald ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

We have constructed 26-amino acid transmembrane proteins that specifically transform cells but consist of only two different amino acids. Most proteins are long polymers of amino acids with 20 or more chemically distinct side-chains. The artificial transmembrane proteins reported here are the ...

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Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870-2000 [Agricultural Sciences]

25.08.2015 | William J. Parton; Myron P. Gutmann; Emily R. Merchant; Melannie D. Hartman; Paul R. Adler; Frederick M. McNeal; Sus ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes ...

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Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa [Anthropology]

25.08.2015 | Faysal Bibi; Wolfgang Kiessling, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen ...

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The opportunistic marine pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus becomes virulent by acquiring a plasmid that expresses a deadly toxin [Microbiology]

25.08.2015 | Chung-Te Lee; I-Tung Chen; Yi-Ting Yang; Tzu-Ping Ko; Yun-Tzu Huang; Jiun-Yan Huang; Ming-Fen Huang; Shin-Jen Lin; C ..., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences current issue, 2015

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe, newly emergent penaeid shrimp disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus that has already led to tremendous losses in the cultured shrimp industry. Until now, its disease-causing mechanism has remained unclear. Here we show that an ...

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