Claudins (Cls) are a multigene family of transmembrane proteins with different tissue distribution, which have an essential role in the formation and sealing capacity of tight junctions (TJs). At the level of the blood[ndash]brain barrier (BBB), TJs are the main molecular structures which separate the neuronal milieu from the circulatory space, by a restriction of the paracellular flow of water, ions and larger molecules into the brain. Different studies suggested recently significant BBB alterations in both vascular and degenerative dementia types. In a previous study we found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) brains an altered expression of occludin, a molecular partner of Cls in the TJs structure. Therefore in this study, using an immunohistochemical approach, we investigated the expression of Cl family proteins (Cl-2, Cl-5 and Cl-11) in frontal cortex of aged control, AD and VaD brains. To estimate the number of Cl-expressing cells, we applied a random systematic sampling and the unbiased optical fractionator method. We found selected neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and endothelial cells expressing Cl-2, Cl-5 and Cl-11 at detectable levels in all cases studied. We report a significant increase in ratio of neurons expressing Cl-2, Cl-5 and Cl-11 in both AD and VaD as compared to aged controls. The ratio of astrocytes expressing Cl-2 and Cl-11 was significantly higher in AD and VaD as compared to aged controls. The ratio of oligodendrocytes expressing Cl-11 was significantly higher in AD and the ratio of oligodendrocytes expressing Cl-2 was significantly higher in VaD as compared to aged controls. Within the cerebral cortex, Cls were selectively expressed by pyramidal neurons, which are the ones responsible for cognitive processes and affected by AD pathology. Our findings suggest a new function of Cl family proteins which might be linked to response to cellular stress.
We studied 17,576 members of 166 MLH1 and 224 MSH2 mutation‐carrying families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Average cumulative risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer (EC) and other cancers for carriers were estimated using modified segregation analysis co ... mehr
Flavonoids have well‐known antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and anti‐cancer activities. Isoflavone genistein is considered a potent antioxidant agent against oxidative stress. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, a clear antioxidant mechanism of genistein is still remain ... mehr
People can get oral cancers from UV (290‐400 nm) exposures. Besides high outdoor UV exposures, high indoor UV exposures to oral tissues can occur when consumers use UV‐emitting tanning devices to either tan or whiten their teeth. We compared the carcinogenic risks of skin to or ... mehr