There is increasing interest in biologics, i.e. human-originated biological pharmaceutics. Most of the protein drugs developed so far, such as immunoglobulins and erythropoietin, are secreted glycoproteins; as a result, any non-human-type glycans, such as αGal and NeuGc, derived from animal cells and sera must be removed to circumvent undesirable immunogenic reactions. In this study, we made an extensive search for potential xenoantigenic glycans among a panel of mammalian sera. As a result, sera belonging to the order Artiodactyla, i.e. bovine, lamb and goat sera, were found to contain substantial amounts of hypersialylated biantennary glycans closely associated with a type-I lactosamine structure containing a unique tetrasaccharide, Siaα2-3Galβ1-3(Siaα2-6)GlcNAc. In all three Artiodactyla sera, the most abundant structure was Siaα2-3Galβ1-3(Siaα2-6)GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-3[Siaα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-6]Manβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc. A dually hypersialylated biantennary structure, Siaα2-3Galβ1-3(Siaα2-6)GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-3[Siaα2-3Galβ1-3(Siaα2-6)GlcNAcβ1-2Manα1-6]Manβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, was also abundant (10%) in bovine serum. The amount of hypersialylated glycans among total sialylated glycans was 46, 26 and 23% in bovine, lamb and goat sera, respectively. On the other hand, such structures could not be detected in the sera of other animals including human. The biological functions and the immunogenicity of the hypersialylated glycans in these animals remain to be elucidated; however, it is worth noting that glycoproteins biosynthesized from Artiodactyla cells and those contaminated with bovine serum might enhance undesirable antigenicity in human patients.
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... mehr
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... mehr
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... mehr