Among influenza A viruses, subtype H3N2 is the major cause of human influenza morbidity and is associated with seasonal epidemics causing annually half million deaths worldwide. Influenza A virus infection is initiated via hemagglutinin that binds to terminally sialylated glycoconjugates exposed on the surface of target cells. Gangliosides from human granulocytes were probed using thin-layer chromatography overlay assays for their binding potential to H3N2 virus strains A/Victoria/3/75 and A/Hiroshima/52/2005. Highly polar gangliosides with poly-N-acetyllactosaminyl chains showing low chromatographic mobility exhibited strong virus adhesion which was entirely abolished by sialidase treatment. Auxiliary overlay assays using anti-sialyl Lewisx (sLex) monoclonal antibodies showed identical binding patterns compared with those performed with the viruses. A comprehensive structural analysis of fractionated gangliosides by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed sLex gangliosides with terminal Neu5Acα2-3Galβ1-4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc epitope and extended neolacto (nLc)-series core structures as the preferential virus binding gangliosides. More precisely, sLex gangliosides with nLc8, nLc10 and nLc12Cer cores, carrying sphingosine (d18:1) and a fatty acid with variable chain length (mostly C24:0, C24:1 or C16:0) in the ceramide moiety and one or two additional internal fucose residues in the oligosaccharide portion, were identified as the preferred receptors recognized by H3N2 virus strains A/Victoria/3/75 and A/Hiroshima/52/2005. This study describes glycan-binding requirements of hemagglutinin beyond binding to glycans with a specific sialic acid linkage of as yet undefined neutrophil receptors acting as ligands for H3N2 viruses. In addition, our results pose new questions on the biological and clinical relevance of this unexpected specificity of a subtype of influenza A viruses.
Iris Meisen; Tabea Dzudzek; Christina Ehrhardt; Stephan Ludwig; Michael Mormann; Regina Rosenbrück; Regine Lümen; Bernhard Kniep; Helge Karch; Johannes Müthing
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... mehr
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... mehr
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... mehr