The human ZC3HAV1 gene encodes an antiviral protein. The longest splicing isoform of ZC3HAV1 contains a C-terminal PARP-like domain, which has evolved under positive selection in primates. We analyzed the evolutionary history of this same domain in humans and in Pan troglodytes. We identified two variants that segregate in both humans and chimpanzees; one of them (rs3735007) does not occur at a hypermutable site and accounts for a nonsynonymous substitution (Thr851Ile). The probability that the two trans-specific polymorphisms have occurred independently in the two lineages was estimated to be low (P = 0.0054), suggesting that at least one of them has arisen before speciation and has been maintained by selection. Population genetic analyses in humans indicated that the region surrounding the shared variants displays strong evidences of long-standing balancing selection. Selection signatures were also observed in a chimpanzee population sample. Inspection of 1000 Genomes data confirmed these findings but indicated that search for selection signatures using low-coverage whole-genome data may need masking of repetitive sequences. A case–control study of more than 1,000 individuals from mainland Italy indicated that the Thr851Ile SNP is significantly associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.08–1.99, P = 0.011). This finding was confirmed in a larger sample of 4,416 Sardinians cases/controls (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.037–1.344, P = 0.011), but not in a population from Belgium. We provide one of the first instances of human/chimpanzee trans-specific coding variant located outside the major histocompatibility complex region. The selective pressure is likely to be virus driven; in modern populations, this variant associates with susceptibility to MS, possibly via the interaction with environmental factors.
R. Cagliani; F. R. Guerini; M. Fumagalli; S. Riva; C. Agliardi; D. Galimberti; U. Pozzoli; A. Goris; B. Dubois; C. Fenoglio; D. Forni; S. Sanna; I. Zara; M. Pitzalis; M. Zoledziewska; F. Cucca; F. Marini; G. P. Comi; E. Scarpini; N. Bresolin; M. Clerici; M. Sironi
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... mehr
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... mehr
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... mehr