This paper reviews the main networks of fruit fly trapping worldwide. The general result highlights the global effectiveness of large and structured fruit fly surveillance networks established according to current international standards. However, there is a considerable contrast among national approaches, depending mainly on the frequency of fruit fly detections. The cost of surveillance networks is high and frequently constitutes a limiting factor for their correct implementation according to the recommended standards. This highlights the importance of research to improve the effectiveness of trapping systems (which refers to the combination of an attractant, a dispenser and a type of trap). A cost‐benefit analysis to compare the actual cost of surveillance with a no‐surveillance strategy and the cost of expected damage would be a promising tool. Ideally, such analysis should take into account the complex of tephritid species already present in a given country and the estimated cost of increased damage on fruit production or increased control costs.
We studied 17,576 members of 166 MLH1 and 224 MSH2 mutation‐carrying families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Average cumulative risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer (EC) and other cancers for carriers were estimated using modified segregation analysis co ... mehr
Flavonoids have well‐known antioxidant, anti‐inflammatory, and anti‐cancer activities. Isoflavone genistein is considered a potent antioxidant agent against oxidative stress. Although several mechanisms have been proposed, a clear antioxidant mechanism of genistein is still remain ... mehr
People can get oral cancers from UV (290‐400 nm) exposures. Besides high outdoor UV exposures, high indoor UV exposures to oral tissues can occur when consumers use UV‐emitting tanning devices to either tan or whiten their teeth. We compared the carcinogenic risks of skin to or ... mehr