Vacuoles in vegetative tissues allow the plant surface to expand by accumulating energetically cheap inorganic osmolytes, and thereby optimize the plant for absorption of sunlight and production of energy by photosynthesis. Some specialized cells, such as guard cells and pulvini motor cells, exhibit rapid volume changes. These changes require the rapid release and uptake of ions and water by the vacuole and are a prerequisite for plant survival. Furthermore, seed vacuoles are important storage units for the nutrients required for early plant development. All of these fundamental processes rely on numerous vacuolar transporters. During the past 15 years, the transporters implicated in most aspects of vacuolar function have been identified and characterized. Vacuolar transporters appear to be integrated into a regulatory network that controls plant metabolism. However, little is known about the mode of action of these fundamental processes, and deciphering the underlying mechanisms remains a challenge for t...
Enrico Martinoia; Stefan Meyer; Alexis De Angeli; Réka Nagy
Avian faunas vary greatly among montane areas; those at high latitudes are biologically impoverished, whereas those of some low-latitude mountains are biologically very complex. Their high level of species richness is caused by the aggregation of many small-ranged species, which has been di ... mehr
Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon that operates during severe perturbations of homeostasis, such as infection, injury, and exposure to contaminants, and is triggered by innate immune receptors that recognize pathogens and damaged cells. Among vertebrates, the inflammatory cascade is a ... mehr
The human body is inhabited by billions of microbial cells and these microbial symbionts play critical roles in human health. Human-associated microbial communities are diverse, and the structure of these communities is variable across body habitats, through time, and between individuals. W ... mehr