Cofilin-2, a small actin-binding protein and member of the AC protein family that includes cofilin-1 and destrin, is predominantly expressed at sarcomeres in skeletal and cardiac muscles. The role of cofilin-2 in muscle development and function is unclear. In humans, recessive cofilin-2 mutations have been associated with nemaline myopathy with minicores. To investigate the functional role of cofilin-2 in vivo, we generated constitutive and muscle-specific cofilin-2-deficient mice using a cre–loxP strategy. Cofilin-2-deficient mice were similar to their wild-type (WT) littermates at birth, but died by day 8. They were significantly smaller, severely weak and had very little milk in their stomachs. The sarcomeric structure was intact at birth, but by Day 7, skeletal muscles showed severe sarcomeric disruptions starting at the Z-line, along with filamentous actin accumulations consistent with a lack of actin depolymerization activity. Cofilin-2-deficient muscles contained elevated numbers of slow fibers and exhibited upregulation of slow fiber-specific genes. Increased amounts of other sarcomeric proteins including α-actinin-2, α-sarcomeric actin and tropomyosin were also present. While destrin was not expressed in either WT or cofilin-2-deficient muscles, cofilin-1 was similarly expressed in developing myofibers of both genotypes. There was no evidence for compensatory changes in expression of either family member in cofilin-2-deficient tissues. The onset of pathology and weakness in cofilin-2-deficient muscles correlated with normal developmental loss of cofilin-1 expression within myofibers, suggesting that cofilin-1 serves as an early developmental sarcomeric isoform. Overall, cofilin-2, although not critical for muscle development, is essential for muscle maintenance.
Agrawal, Pankaj B.; Joshi, Mugdha; Savic, Talia; Chen, Zoe; Beggs, Alan H.
Bacterial heat-labile (LT) enterotoxins signal through tightly regulated interactions with host cell gangliosides. LT-IIa and LT-IIb of Escherichia coli bind preferentially to gangliosides with a NeuAcα2-3Galβ1-3GalNAc terminus, with key distinctions in specificity. LT-IIc, a newly discove ... mehr
Phosphate deficiency is characteristic for many natural habitats, resulting in different physiological responses in plants and bacteria including the replacement of phospholipids by glycolipids and other phosphorous-free lipids. The plant pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, whi ... mehr
A tryptophan side chain was introduced into subsite +1 of family GH-18 (class V) chitinases from Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana (NtChiV and AtChiC, respectively) by the mutation of a glycine residue to tryptophan (G74W-NtChiV and G75W-AtChiC). The specific activity toward glyco ... mehr