Five new steroidal glycosides (1–5) and nine known compounds were isolated from Solanum violaceum. Indiosides G (1) and H (2) are spirostene saponins with an iso-type F ring, indioside I (3) is a spirostane saponin, and indiosides J (4) and K (5) are unusual furostanol saponins with a deformed F ring. These structures represent rare naturally occurring steroidal skeletons. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using 1D and 2D spectroscopic techniques and acid hydrolysis. Compounds 2, 3, and 7–9 exhibited cytotoxic activity against six human cancer cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B, A549, Ca9-22, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7) with IC50 values of 1.83–8.04 μg/mL. Steroidal saponins 3, 8, and 9 showed inhibitory effects on superoxide anion generation with IC50 values of 2.84 ± 0.18, 0.62 ± 0.03, and 1.62 ± 0.59 μg/mL, respectively. Saponins 8 and 9 also inhibited elastase release with IC50 values of 111.05 ± 7.37 and 4.04 ± 0.51 μg/mL, respectively. Structure–activity relationship correlations of these compoun...
The successful applicability of gene therapy approaches will heavily rely on the development of efficient and safe nonviral gene delivery vectors, for example, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs). CPPs can condense oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA (pDNA) into nanoparticles, thus allowing the t ... mehr
Dendrimers feature a defined number of terminal groups that may bind RNA or be functionalized with bioactive molecules. These competing uses of terminal groups may create an impasse if the requisite density of ligands depletes the number of terminal groups for binding sufficient RNA, or vic ... mehr
The development of clay bionanocomposites requires processing routes with nanostructural control. Moreover, moisture durability is a concern with water-soluble biopolymers. Here, oriented bionanocomposite coatings with strong in-plane orientation of clay platelets are for the first time pre ... mehr