Recent studies addressing the internalization of fresh produce by foodborne pathogens arose in response to the growing number of recent and high profile outbreaks involving fresh produce. Because chemical sanitizing agents used during harvest and minimal processing are unlikely to reach enteric pathogens residing within plant tissue, it is imperative that paths for pathogen entry be recognized and minimized. Using both microscopy and microbial enumeration tools, enteric pathogens have been shown to enter plant tissues through both natural apertures (stomata, lateral junctions of roots, flowers) and damaged (wounds, cut surfaces) tissue. In studies revealing preharvest internalization via plant roots or leaf stomata, experimental conditions have primarily involved exposure of plants to high pathogen concentrations (≥6 log g−1 soil or 6 log ml−1 water), but those pathogens internalized appear to have short-term persistence. Postharvest internalization of pathogens via cut surfaces may be minimized by mainta...
Avian faunas vary greatly among montane areas; those at high latitudes are biologically impoverished, whereas those of some low-latitude mountains are biologically very complex. Their high level of species richness is caused by the aggregation of many small-ranged species, which has been di ... mehr
Inflammation is a pervasive phenomenon that operates during severe perturbations of homeostasis, such as infection, injury, and exposure to contaminants, and is triggered by innate immune receptors that recognize pathogens and damaged cells. Among vertebrates, the inflammatory cascade is a ... mehr
The human body is inhabited by billions of microbial cells and these microbial symbionts play critical roles in human health. Human-associated microbial communities are diverse, and the structure of these communities is variable across body habitats, through time, and between individuals. W ... mehr