The RNA exosome and RNA exosome-linked disease [REVIEW]
The RNA exosome is an evolutionarily conserved, ribonuclease complex that is critical for both processing and degradation of a variety of RNAs. Cofactors that associate with the RNA exosome likely dictate substrate specificity for this complex. Recently, mutations in genes encoding both structural subunits of the RNA exosome and its cofactors have been linked to human disease. Mutations in the RNA exosome genes EXOSC3 and EXOSC8 cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1b (PCH1b) and type 1c (PCH1c), respectively, which are similar autosomal-recessive, neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in the RNA exosome gene EXOSC2 cause a distinct syndrome with various tissue-specific phenotypes including retinitis pigmentosa and mild intellectual disability. Mutations in genes that encode RNA exosome cofactors also cause tissue-specific diseases with complex phenotypes. How mutations in these genes give rise to distinct, tissue-specific diseases is not clear. In this review, we discuss the role of the RNA exosome complex and its cofactors in human disease, consider the amino acid changes that have been implicated in disease, and speculate on the mechanisms by which exosome gene mutations could underlie dysfunction and disease.
Derrick J. Morton; Emily G. Kuiper; Stephanie K. Jones; Sara W. Leung; Anita H. Corbett; Milo B. Fasken
G5'pp5'G synthesis from pG and chemically activated 2MeImpG is accelerated by the addition of complementary poly(C), but affected only slightly by poly(G) and not at all by poly(U) and poly(A). This suggests that 3'–5' poly(C) is a template for uncatalyzed synthesis of 5'–5' GppG, as was po ... mehr
Prokaryotic CRISPR–Cas systems provide an RNA-guided mechanism for genome defense against mobile genetic elements such as viruses and plasmids. In type III-A CRISPR–Cas systems, the RNA-guided multisubunit Csm effector complex targets both single-stranded RNAs and double-stranded DNAs. In a ... mehr
Older adults exhibit disproportionate impairments in memory for item-associations. These impairments may stem from an inability to self-initiate deep encoding strategies. The present study investigates this using the "treasure-hunt task"; a what–where–when style episodic memory test that re ... mehr